Azure Interview Questions and Answers for 2024

As cloud computing continue to gain popularity, more and more companies are turning to cloud platforms like Microsoft Azure to help them manage their IT infrastructure. If you're preparing for an Azure interview, it's important to have a good understanding of the concepts and tools that are unique to the platform. We'll provide a brief overview of some of the most common Azure interview questions and the concepts you should be familiar with to meet the demand. Some of the key concepts that you should be familiar with when preparing for an Azure interview include virtual machines, storage accounts, Azure Resource Manager, Azure Active Directory, and networking. This guide is made to help you understand and feel more confident about using Azure, no matter if you're new to it, have some experience, or are an expert. Further, we will dive deep into the list of Azure interview questions and answers that will guide you in your interview preparation and help you understand what employers are looking for. With the right preparation to build in-demand Azure skills and knowledge and the right techniques and practice to ace your interviews, you'll be well on your way to a successful career in Azure. Before we delve into the interview questions, let us understand more about

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Beginner

Microsoft Azure is a cloud computing platform and infrastructure created by Microsoft for building, deploying, and managing applications and services through a global network of Microsoft-managed data centers. It provides a range of cloud services, including those for computing, analytics, storage, and networking. Users can choose and configure these services to meet their specific needs.

Azure differs from other cloud computing platforms in a few key ways. One of the main differences is the range of services it offers. Azure provides a wide variety of services, including infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and software as a service (SaaS). This means that users can choose the level of control and management they want over their infrastructure and applications, depending on their needs and expertise. Another difference is the focus on hybrid cloud scenarios. 

Azure is designed to be flexible and to support the integration of on-premises resources with cloud-based resources, allowing organizations to use the best combination of on-premises and cloud-based resources to meet their needs. Finally, Azure is known for its strong emphasis on security and compliance, with a range of security features and certifications to protect customer data and ensure regulatory compliance.

This is one of the most frequently asked Azure interview questions for freshers in recent times.

Microsoft Azure is made up of a range of cloud services that can be combined to create a customized solution for a specific use case. These services are organized into the following categories: 

  1. Compute: Services in this category provide the computing power and resources needed to run applications and services, including virtual machines, containers, and functions. 
  2. Data: Services in this category provide storage and management for data, including databases, data lakes, and data warehouses 
  3. Networking: Services in this category provide networking capabilities, including virtual networks, load balancers, and VPNs. 
  4. Security: Services in this category provide security features, including identity and access management, data protection, and threat protection. 
  5. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning: Services in this category provide tools and services for building and deploying AI and machine learning solutions, including pre-trained models and custom machine learning models. 
  6. Internet of Things (IoT): Services in this category provide tools and services for building and deploying IoT solutions, including device management and data processing. 
  7. Analytics: Services in this category provide tools and services for analyzing data and generating insights, including data visualization, data warehousing, and big data processing 
  8. Integration: Services in this category provide tools and services for integrating different systems and applications, including APIs and messaging. 
  9. Identity: Services in this category provide identity and access management capabilities, including single sign-on and multi-factor authentication. 
  10. DevOps: Services in this category provide tools and services for managing the development, deployment, and operation of applications, including continuous delivery and monitoring

These services can be used individually or combined to create a customized solution. For example, an organization might use virtual machines for computing power, a data lake for storing and managing data, and a load balancer for networking. They might also use AI and machine learning services to analyze their data and generate insights and use integration services to connect different systems and applications. 

This is one of the most frequently asked Azure interview questions for freshers in recent times.

Microsoft Azure takes security and compliance very seriously and has implemented several measures to ensure the security and compliance of its cloud services.  

Here are some of the ways in which Azure handles security and compliance: 

  1. Physical security: Azure has multiple data centers located around the world, and each data center is equipped with state-of-the-art physical security measures, including biometric scanners and 24/7 video surveillance 
  2. Network security: Azure uses advanced network security measures, such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems, to protect its infrastructure from cyber attacks 
  3. Data encryption: Azure encrypts data at rest and in transit using industry-standard encryption technologies. 
  4. Compliance: Azure has been designed to meet a wide range of compliance standards, including HIPAA, PCI DSS, and GDPR. It also offers various compliance certifications, such as ISO 27001 and SOC 2, to help customers meet their own compliance requirements. 
  5. Access control: Azure provides several features to help customers control access to their resources, including multi-factor authentication and role-based access controls. 
  6. Auditing and monitoring: Azure provide extensive auditing and monitoring capabilities to help customers track activity and detect potential security issues.

Overall, Azure takes a comprehensive approach to security and compliance, with measures in place to protect against physical and cyber threats, ensure data confidentiality and integrity, and meet a wide range of compliance standards. 

Expect to come across this, one of the most important Azure data engineer interview questions for experienced professionals, in your next interviews.

Microsoft Azure provides a range of services to support the development, deployment, and management of applications.

  • For development: Azure offers tools and services such as Azure DevOps, which provides a set of development tools, including source control, agile project management, and continuous delivery, as well as tools for testing and debugging. Azure also offers a range of tools and services for building and deploying applications, including virtual machines, containers, functions, and managed services such as Azure Web Apps and Azure Functions. 
  • For deployment: Azure provides a range of tools and services to help users deploy and manage their applications, including Azure Resource Manager, which allows users to deploy, manage, and monitor resources as a group, and Azure DevOps, which provides continuous delivery capabilities. 
  • For management: Azure provides a range of tools and services to help users monitor and manage their applications, including Azure Monitor, which provides monitoring and alerting capabilities, and Azure Automation, which allows users to automate tasks and processes. Azure also offers a range of tools and services for managing infrastructure, including virtual machines, networking, and storage.  

Overall, Azure provides a comprehensive set of tools and services to support the entire application lifecycle, from development and deployment to management and maintenance.

Expect to come across this, one of the most important Microsoft Azure interview questions for experienced professionals in cloud computing, in your next interviews.

Microsoft Azure is a versatile cloud platform that can be used for a wide range of use cases. Some common use cases for Azure include:  

  1. Web and Mobile Applications: Azure provides a range of services for building and deploying web and mobile applications, including Azure Web Apps, Azure Functions, and Azure Mobile Apps. These services provide scalable, reliable hosting for web and mobile applications, as well as tools and services for building, deploying, and managing them.
  2. Data Analytics: Azure provides a range of services for storing, processing, and analyzing data, including Azure Data Lake, Azure HDInsight, and Azure Data Factory. These services can be used to build data pipelines, run big data workloads, and generate insights from data. Azure data factory interview questions are very much asked so be prepare well for this.
  3. Machine Learning: Azure provides a range of tools and services for building and deploying machine learning models, including Azure Machine Learning, Azure Databricks, and Azure Cognitive Services. These services can be used to build custom machine-learning models or to use pre-trained models for tasks such as image and language processing.
  4. Internet of Things (IoT): Azure provides a range of tools and services for building and deploying IoT solutions, including Azure IoT Hub, Azure IoT Central, and Azure Stream Analytics. These services can be used to manage and process data from IoT devices, build IoT applications and analyze IoT data streams.
  5. Hybrid Cloud Scenarios: Azure is designed to support hybrid cloud scenarios, allowing organizations to connect on-premises resources to the cloud and use the best combination of on-premises and cloud-based resources to meet their needs. Azure provides a range of tools and services for integrating on-premises resources with the cloud, including Azure Stack, Azure Virtual WAN, and Azure ExpressRoute. 

These are just a few examples of the many use cases for Azure. The platform is designed to be flexible and to support a wide range of workloads and scenarios. 

A must-know for anyone looking for Microsoft Azure interview questions, this is one of the most common Azure questions to ask a cloud engineer.

Microsoft Azure is designed to support hybrid cloud scenarios, allowing organizations to connect on-premises resources to the cloud and use the best combination of on-premises and cloud-based resources to meet their needs. Azure provides a range of tools and services to support hybrid cloud scenarios, including: 

  1. Azure Stack: Azure Stack is an extension of Azure that allows organizations to run Azure services on-premises. It provides a way for organizations to use the same tools, APIs, and technologies in Azure to build and deploy applications on-premises. 
  2. Azure Virtual WAN: Azure Virtual WAN is a networking service that allows organizations to connect their on-premises networks to Azure and other cloud platforms. It provides a range of networking capabilities, including VPNs, peering, and load balancing, to support hybrid cloud scenarios. 
  3. Azure ExpressRoute: Azure ExpressRoute is a private connection service that allows organizations to connect their on-premises networks to Azure and other cloud platforms. It provides a dedicated, high-bandwidth connection separate from the public internet, making it suitable for mission-critical workloads and sensitive data. 
  4. Azure Arc: Azure Arc is a set of tools and services that allows organizations to manage resources across hybrid environments, including on-premises and multi-cloud environments. It provides a single control plane for managing resources and tools for deploying and managing applications across hybrid environments.

Azure provides various tools and services to support hybrid cloud scenarios, allowing organizations to use the best combination of on-premises and cloud-based resources to meet their needs. 

Don't be surprised if this question pops up as one of the top questions on Azure in your next interview.

Migrating applications and data to Azure involves the following steps:  

  1. Planning: Before starting the migration process, it is important to plan out the migration strategy. This includes identifying the applications and data that will be migrated, assessing their dependencies and requirements, and determining the target environment in Azure. 
  2. Preparation: The next step is to prepare the applications and data for migration. This may involve cleaning up and organizing data, updating applications to be compatible with Azure, and testing the applications and data in a staging environment. 
  3. Migration: There are several different approaches to migrating applications and data to Azure, depending on the specific needs and requirements of the applications and data. Some common approaches include lift-and-shift, which involves moving applications and data as-is to Azure, and refactoring, which involves modifying the applications and data to fit the Azure environment better. 
  4. Testing: After the applications and data have been migrated, it is important to test them to ensure they function correctly in the Azure environment. This may involve testing the applications and data in a staging environment and performing user acceptance testing to ensure they meet the organisation's needs. 
  5. Deployment: Once the applications and data have been tested and are ready for production, they can be deployed to the Azure environment. This may involve configuring the applications and data in Azure, setting up networking and security, and establishing monitoring and maintenance processes. 

Migrating applications and data to Azure involves careful planning, preparation, and testing to ensure a smooth and successful transition to the cloud. 

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Microsoft Azure provides various tools and services to support disaster recovery and business continuity. These include: 

  1. Azure Site Recovery: Azure Site Recovery is a disaster recovery service that helps organizations protect their on-premises workloads and applications by replicating them to Azure or a secondary on-premises location. It provides a range of options for configuring disaster recovery, including replication frequency, failover, and recovery options. 
  2. Azure Backup: Azure Backup is a data protection service that helps organizations protect their data by creating backups and storing them in Azure. It provides a range of options for configuring data protection, including backup frequency, retention policies, and recovery options 
  3. Azure Disaster Recovery: Azure Disaster Recovery is a service that helps organizations recover from disasters by providing various tools and services for disaster recovery planning, testing, and execution. It includes features such as disaster recovery drills, recovery plans, and failover testing. 
  4. Azure Recovery Services vault: Azure Recovery Services vault is a storage location for recovery points created by Azure Backup and Azure Site Recovery. It provides a central location for storing and managing recovery points and tools for configuring backup and disaster recovery policies. 

Azure provides a comprehensive set of tools and services to support disaster recovery and business continuity, helping organizations protect their applications and data and ensure they are available in the event of a disaster. 

Microsoft Azure provides various tools and services to support the Internet of Things (IoT). These include: 

  1. Azure IoT Hub: Azure IoT Hub is a messaging service that enables communication between IoT devices and the cloud. It provides a secure and reliable way for devices to send data to the cloud and for the cloud to send commands to devices. 
  2. Azure IoT Central: Azure IoT Central is a fully managed IoT platform that allows organizations to build and deploy IoT solutions quickly and easily. It provides a range of tools and services for building and managing IoT solutions, including device management, data analytics, and visualization. 
  3. Azure IoT Edge: Azure IoT Edge is a service that allows organizations to run Azure services and custom logic on IoT devices. It enables organizations to process data locally on devices and to send only the relevant data to the cloud, reducing the amount of data that needs to be transmitted and processed in the cloud. 
  4. Azure Stream Analytics: Azure Stream Analytics is a real-time data processing service that enables organizations to analyze and process data streams from IoT devices in near real-time. It provides tools for defining rules and triggers, as well as integration with other Azure services such as Azure Functions and Azure Machine Learning.

Azure provides a range of tools and services to support the development and deployment of IoT solutions, including messaging, device management, data analytics, and real-time data processing. 

A must-know for anyone looking for Microsoft Azure interview questions, this is one of the most common Azure questions to ask a cloud engineer.

Microsoft Azure uses a pay-as-you-go pricing model, meaning users only pay for the resources they consume. Prices for Azure resources vary depending on the specific resource and the location in which it is deployed. Users can view the current prices for Azure resources on the Azure pricing page.  

In addition to pay-as-you-go pricing, Azure also offers several pricing options to help users save money on their cloud expenses. These include 

  1. Azure Reservations: Azure Reservations allow users to purchase a reservation for a specific Azure resource, such as a virtual machine or a database, at a discounted price. The reservation is valid for a specific period and can be used to deploy resources as needed during that time. 
  2. Azure Hybrid Benefit: Azure Hybrid Benefit allows users to apply their existing on-premises licenses to Azure resources, providing a discount on the cost of those resources. This benefit is available for certain types of licenses, such as Windows Server and SQL Server licenses. 
  3. Azure Free Account: Azure Free Account is a free account that provides users with access to a limited number of Azure services at no cost. It is intended for users who want to try out Azure or build small applications. 

Azure's pricing model is like those of other cloud providers, such as Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Google Cloud Platform (GCP). However, there are some differences in pricing between Azure and these other cloud providers, and users should carefully compare the costs of different resources and services to determine the best fit for their needs. 

An Azure Service Level Agreement (SLA) is a commitment made by Microsoft to ensure that Azure services meet certain levels of availability and performance. The specific terms of an SLA depend on the specific Azure service being used and may include guarantees around uptime, response times, and other service-specific metrics.

Azure SLAs are designed to provide customers with confidence in the reliability and performance of Azure services and to help them understand the terms and conditions under which those services are provided. In general, Azure SLAs specify the minimum levels of service that customers can expect to receive and outline the steps that Microsoft will take to resolve any issues that may arise.

Azure pricing is based on a pay-as-you-go model, which means that customers only pay for the resources they consume. Prices for Azure services vary depending on the specific service, the region in which the service is used, and the volume of resources consumed.

Azure offers a variety of pricing options to meet the needs of different customers. Some services offer a fixed, per-hour or per-month pricing model, while others use a pay-per-use model, where customers are charged based on the specific resources they consume.

In addition to the standard pay-as-you-go pricing model, Azure also offers discounts for customers who commit to using a certain number of resources over a certain period. These discounts are typically available through Azure Reservations, which allow customers to pre-pay for a certain number of resources at a discounted rate.

To get an estimate of Azure pricing for a specific service and workload, you can use the Azure Pricing Calculator (https://Azure.microsoft.com/en-us/pricing/calculator/) or the Azure Cost Management tools (https://Azure.microsoft.com/en-us/pricing/cost-management/). 

Azure Regions are physically separate locations around the world where Azure services are available. Each Azure Region is made up of one or more data centers that are connected through a high-speed, low-latency network. Azure currently has over 60 regions worldwide, including locations in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia, South America, and Africa. Availability Zones are physically separate data centers within an Azure Region that are connected through a high-speed network. Each Availability Zone is designed to be highly available and redundant, with independent power, cooling, and networking. This ensures that if one Availability Zone experiences an outage, the other Availability Zones in the region can continue to operate, providing additional resilience and reliability for customer workloads.  

Customers can use Azure Regions and Availability Zones to deploy their workloads in a location close to their users or customers, which can help reduce latency and improve performance. In addition, by deploying workloads in multiple regions or Availability Zones, customers can improve the availability and disaster recovery capabilities of their applications. 

Azure provides various services for storing and managing data in the cloud. These services include: 

  • Azure Storage: A scalable, redundant, and highly available storage service that supports blobs, files, tables, and queues. Azure Storage can be used to store a variety of data types, including unstructured data such as images and videos, and structured data such as JSON and CSV files. 
  • Azure SQL Database: A fully managed, cloud-based relational database service that is based on the SQL Server engine. Azure SQL Database can be used to store and manage structured data and supports a variety of programming languages and frameworks. 

The Azure managed SQL service questions are oftenly asked under Azure sql interview questions.  

  • Azure Cosmos DB: A globally distributed, multi-model database service that supports a variety of data models and APIs, including SQL, MongoDB, Cassandra, and Azure Table Storage. Cosmos DB is designed for low-latency, high-throughput workloads and can be used to store and manage a wide range of data types. 
  • Azure Data Lake: A big data store that can handle large volumes of structured and unstructured data. Azure Data Lake is designed for data analytics and machine learning workloads and can be used to store and process data from a variety of sources.

In addition to these core storage and database services, Azure also offers a range of tools and services for data management, including data integration, data warehousing, and data analytics. These tools and services can be used to extract, transform, and load data from a variety of sources and to perform advanced analytics and visualization on that data.  

A staple in interview questions on Azure, be prepared to answer this one.  

An Azure Virtual Machine (VM) is a cloud-based computing resource that allows users to create and configure a virtual machine in the Azure cloud. A virtual machine is a software-based emulation of a physical computer that can run an operating system and applications in an isolated environment.  

Azure VMs are used for a variety of purposes, including:  

  • Hosting web servers, application servers, and other types of servers  
  • Running development and test environments  
  • Running legacy applications that are not compatible with cloud-native architectures  
  • Running applications that require specific operating systems or configurations  

To create an Azure VM, users can choose from a variety of operating systems, including Windows and Linux, and can select the size and configuration of the VM that best meets their needs. Once the VM is created, users can connect to it remotely and install and configure the operating system and applications as needed.  

Azure VMs are highly scalable and can be easily resized or modified to meet changing workload requirements. They are also highly available, with options for configuring redundant VMs and using features like Azure Availability Zones to improve reliability. 

Azure DevOps is a set of development tools, services, and features that enable teams to plan, develop, deliver, and maintain software more efficiently. It includes a range of services, including:  

  1. Azure Boards: A work-tracking system that helps teams plan, track, and discuss work across the entire development process. 
  2. Azure Repos: A version control system that enables teams to track code changes, roll back changes, and maintain a history of their codebase 
  3. Azure Pipelines: A continuous integration and delivery (CI/CD) platform that helps teams automate the build, test, and deployment of their applications. 
  4. Azure Test Plans: A testing tool that helps teams plan, track and manage their testing efforts. 
  5. Azure Artifacts: Azure DevOps provides a full package management to use for the CI/CD enablement. You can connect to your private feeds to pull the artifacts and use for the deployment. 

Azure DevOps is typically used in the development process to support agile software development methodologies. It helps teams to track work and code changes, automate builds and deployments, and manage testing efforts in a single, integrated platform.  

By using Azure DevOps, teams can improve collaboration, accelerate delivery, and reduce the risk of errors in their software development process. It is a popular choice for both small and large development teams and can be used with a variety of programming languages and platforms. 

Azure Active Directory (AD) is a cloud-based identity and access management service that helps organizations securely manage user access to resources. It provides a central directory that stores and manages user identities, along with tools and features for managing access to resources. 

Azure AD can be used to: 

  • Manage user identities, including the creation and management of user accounts, groups, and roles.  
  • Control access to resources, including setting permissions and policies for accessing specific resources.  
  • Enable single sign-on (SSO) for cloud and on-premises applications, allowing users to use a single set of credentials to access multiple applications.  
  • Integrate with other systems, including on-premises Active Directory and third-party applications, to enable seamless identity management across different systems and platforms 
  • To centralize and standardize their identity and access management processes and to secure access to resources by organizations. It can be used to manage access to a wide range of resources, including Azure services, Office 365, and other cloud and on-premises applications.  

Azure provides a range of tools and services that can be used to implement disaster recovery and business continuity strategies. These tools and services include: 

  1. Azure Site Recovery: A cloud-based disaster recovery service that helps organizations to protect their on-premises and Azure workloads by replicating data and applications to a secondary location. Site Recovery can be used to automate the failover and recovery of workloads in the event of an outage or disaster 
  2. Azure Backup: A cloud-based backup service that helps organizations to protect their data by creating periodic backups of files, folders, and system state. Azure Backup can be used to recover data in the event of data loss or corruption and can be integrated with Site Recovery for disaster recovery scenarios. 
  3. Azure Traffic Manager: A load-balancing service that helps organizations to distribute traffic across multiple locations, including Azure regions and on-premises resources. Traffic Manager can be used to improve the availability and performance of applications by routing traffic to the best performing location. 
  4. Azure Load Balancer: A network load balancing service that helps organizations to distribute incoming traffic across multiple resources, such as virtual machines or containers. Load Balancer can be used to improve the availability and scalability of applications by distributing traffic across multiple instances.

By using these and other Azure tools and services, organizations can implement robust disaster recovery and business continuity strategies that help to ensure the availability and reliability of their applications and data in the event of an outage or disaster.  

Azure Functions is a serverless compute service that enables users to run code on-demand in response to specific events or triggers. It is designed to make it easy to develop, deploy, and run code in the cloud, without the need to worry about infrastructure or scale. 

Azure Functions can be used to execute a variety of tasks, including: 

  • Running simple scripts or pieces of code in response to events such as a new data entry in a database, a message being posted to a queue, or a file being added to storage.  
  • Transforming and processing data using Azure services such as Azure Data Factory, Azure Stream Analytics, or Azure Logic Apps.  
  • Integrating with other Azure services or third-party APIs to build custom solutions or automate business processes. 

Azure Functions can be written in a variety of languages, including C#, F#, JavaScript, and Python, and can be triggered by a wide range of events. They can be deployed and run on a pay-per-use basis, with automatic scaling to handle changes in workload.  

Azure Functions are often used to build microservices-based architectures and can be used in conjunction with other Azure services such as Azure Kubernetes Service and Azure Service Bus to build scalable and resilient solutions.

Azure provides various tools and services for deploying and managing containerized applications in the cloud. These tools and services include:

  1. Azure Container Instances: A service that allows users to run containerized applications on Azure without the need to manage any infrastructure. Container Instances can be used to quickly deploy and run containerized applications on a pay-per-use basis, with automatic scaling to handle changes in workload. 
  2. Azure Kubernetes Service: A fully managed Kubernetes service that allows users to deploy, scale, and manage containerized applications in the cloud. Azure Kubernetes Service provides a hosted Kubernetes environment that can be used to deploy and manage containerized applications at scale, with built-in support for monitoring, logging, and autoscaling. 
  3. Azure Container Registry: A private registry for storing and managing container images in Azure. Azure Container Registry can be used to store and manage custom images, as well as to share images with other users within an organization.

In addition to these core container services, Azure also offers a range of tools and services for developing, deploying, and managing containerized applications, including integration with popular development tools and frameworks such as Docker and Jenkins.  

By using these tools and services, organizations can deploy and manage containerized applications on Azure in a scalable, reliable, and cost-effective manner. 

This is a regular feature in Azure technical interview questions, be ready to tackle it. 

Azure IoT is a set of cloud-based services and tools that enable organizations to build, deploy, and manage Internet of Things (IoT) solutions. It provides a range of services for connecting, monitoring, and managing IoT devices, as well as tools for analyzing and visualizing data collected from those devices.  

Azure IoT can be used to: 

  • Connect a wide variety of IoT devices to the cloud, including devices that use different communication protocols and technologies.  
  • Securely communicate with and manage IoT devices, including the ability to send commands and updates to devices and to monitor their status and health.  
  • Process and analyze data collected from IoT devices in real-time, using Azure services such as Azure Stream Analytics and Azure Machine Learning.  
  • Visualize and present data collected from IoT devices using tools such as Azure Power BI and Azure Maps. 

Azure IoT is used by organizations to build and deploy a wide range of IoT solutions, including solutions for connected devices, predictive maintenance, asset tracking, and real-time data analytics. It is a popular choice for organizations looking to leverage the power of IoT to improve their operations, optimize their assets, and drive innovation. 

Azure provides a range of tools and services for developing, training, and deploying machine learning models in the cloud. These tools and services include: 

  1. Azure Machine Learning: A cloud-based platform for developing, training, and deploying machine learning models. Azure Machine Learning provides a range of tools and libraries for building machine learning models, as well as a managed environment for training and deploying those models 
  2. Azure Machine Learning Studio: A visual, drag-and-drop interface for building and training machine learning models. Machine Learning Studio is designed for data scientists and developers who want to build machine learning models without writing code. 
  3. Azure Machine Learning Compute: A managed compute environment for training machine learning models at scale. Machine Learning Compute provides the ability to scale up training workloads to multiple GPUs or VMs, and to schedule and automate training jobs 
  4. Azure Machine Learning Pipelines: A service for creating, scheduling, and managing machine learning workflows. Machine Learning Pipelines can be used to automate the end-to-end process of building, training, and deploying machine learning models. 

By using these and other Azure tools and services, organizations can develop, train, and deploy machine learning models on Azure in a scalable, reliable, and cost-effective manner. 

Azure Resource Manager is a system for managing resources in Azure. It provides a central interface for creating, updating, and deleting resources in Azure, and for managing the relationships between those resources. 

Azure Resource Manager is used to: 

  • Create and manage resources in Azure, including virtual machines, storage accounts, and web applications.  
  • Group related resources into resource groups, which can be used to manage and deploy resources as a single unit.  
  • Apply policies and permissions to resources, including the ability to control access to resources using Azure Active Directory and role-based access control.  
  • Track changes to resources using resource locks and tags, which can be used to prevent accidental deletion or modification of resources. 

Azure Resource Manager is an important part of the Azure platform and is used by administrators and developers to manage the resources that make up their Azure-based applications and solutions. It provides a central interface for managing resources and helps to ensure that those resources are used efficiently and effectively. 

Azure provides a range of tools and services for integrating on-premises systems with the cloud. These tools and services include: 

  1. Azure Virtual Network: A cloud-based networking service that allows users to create a secure, private connection between their on-premises networks and Azure. Virtual Network can be used to connect on-premises resources to Azure, and to allow those resources to communicate with each other as if they were on the same network. 
  2. Azure ExpressRoute: A dedicated, private connection between an organization's on-premises data centers and Azure. ExpressRoute can be used to establish a high-bandwidth, low-latency connection between on-premises and Azure resources and is often used for mission-critical applications or data that requires a secure and reliable connection. 
  3. Azure Site Recovery: A disaster recovery service that allows users to replicate on-premises workloads to Azure, and to automate the failover and recovery of those workloads in the event of an outage. Site Recovery can be used to improve the availability and resilience of on-premises workloads by providing a secondary location in the cloud. 
  4. Azure Data Factory: A data integration service that allows users to create and orchestrate data pipelines for moving and transforming data between on-premises and cloud data sources. Data Factory can be used to replicate data from on-premises systems to Azure, and to perform data transformations and analytics in the cloud. Azure data factory interview questions are the frequently asked questions.

By using these and other Azure tools and services, organizations can integrate their on-premises systems with Azure in a secure and reliable manner and can leverage the scalability and flexibility of the cloud to support their business needs. 

Azure provides a range of networking options to support the connectivity and communication needs of different types of workloads and applications. These options include:  

  1. Azure Virtual Network: A cloud-based networking service that allows users to create a private, isolated network in Azure, and to connect that network to their on-premises networks or the internet. Virtual Network can be used to create network segments, subnets, and network security groups to control access to resources. 
  2. Azure Load Balancer: A network load balancing service that allows users to distribute incoming traffic across multiple resources, such as virtual machines or containers. Load Balancer can be used to improve the availability and scalability of applications by distributing traffic across multiple instances. 
  3. Azure Application Gateway: A web application firewall and load balancer that allows users to secure and scale their web applications. Application Gateway can be used to protect against common web vulnerabilities, and to distribute traffic to multiple backend servers. 
  4. Azure Traffic Manager: A DNS-based load balancing service that allows users to distribute traffic across multiple locations, including Azure regions and on-premises resources. Traffic Manager can be used to improve the availability and performance of applications by routing traffic to the best performing location. 
  5. Azure ExpressRoute: A dedicated, private connection between an organization's on-premises data centers and Azure. ExpressRoute can be used to establish a high-bandwidth, low-latency connection between on-premises and Azure resources and is often used for mission-critical applications or data that requires a secure and reliable connection.

By using these and other Azure networking options, organizations can create and configure networks that meet the specific needs of their workloads and applications and can connect those networks to other resources both within and outside of Azure. 

Azure provides a range of tools and services for monitoring and logging applications and infrastructure in the cloud. These tools and services include: 

  1. Azure Monitor: A monitoring service that allows users to collect, analyze, and act on data from a variety of sources, including Azure resources, applications, and on-premises systems. Azure Monitor provides a range of tools and features for collecting metrics, logs, and traces, and for creating custom alerts and dashboards. 
  2. Azure Log Analytics: A log management service that allows users to search, analyze, and visualize log data collected from a variety of sources, including Azure resources, applications, and on-premises systems. Log Analytics provides a range of tools and features for analyzing log data and creating custom queries and reports. 
  3. Azure Event Hubs: A messaging service that allows users to collect, and process large amounts of data from a variety of sources, including Azure resources, applications, and on- premises systems. Event Hubs can be used to process data in real-time using Azure Stream Analytics or Azure Functions, and to store data in Azure Storage or Azure Data Lake for long-term analysis. 

By using these and other Azure monitoring and logging tools and services, organizations can gain insights into the performance, availability, and health of their applications and infrastructure, and can take corrective action to resolve issues or improve performance.

Azure Security Center is a cloud-based security management service that helps organizations to protect their Azure resources against threats. It provides a central interface for managing security across an organization's Azure resources and includes a range of tools and features for detecting, responding to, and mitigating security threats.  

Azure Security Center can be used to: 

  • Monitor the security of Azure resources in real-time, including the ability to detect potential security threats and vulnerabilities.  
  • Protect against threats by applying security policies and controls to resources, including the ability to block or allow specific types of traffic.  
  • Respond to security threats by providing alerts and recommendations for remediation, and by enabling users to take automated or manual actions to mitigate threats.  
  • Integrate with other security tools and services, including on-premises security systems, to provide a comprehensive view of an organization's security posture. 

Azure Security Center is an important part of Azure's security offerings and is used by organizations to improve the security of their Azure resources and to protect against threats. It helps to ensure that Azure resources are used in a secure and compliant manner and can help to reduce the risk of security breaches or data loss. 

Azure provides a range of tools and services for developing and deploying serverless applications in the cloud. These tools and services include: 

  1. Azure Functions: A serverless compute service that allows users to run code on-demand in response to specific events or triggers. Azure Functions can be used to execute a variety of tasks, including running simple scripts or pieces of code, integrating with other Azure services or thirdparty APIs, and transforming and processing data. 
  2. Azure Event Grid: A service that allows users to subscribe to and react to events that occur within Azure or in external sources. Event Grid can be used to trigger Azure Functions or other Azure services in response to events, and to build event-driven architectures. 
  3. Azure Logic Apps: A service that allows users to automate business processes and workflows by creating logic app workflows that respond to events and triggers. Logic Apps can be used to integrate with a wide variety of Azure and third-party services and can be triggered by events from Azure Event Grid or other sources.

By using these and other Azure serverless tools and services, organizations can build and deploy applications that are scalable, reliable, and cost-effective, and that can respond to events and workloads in real-time. Serverless architectures can be particularly useful for applications that require a high degree of flexibility and scalability and can help to reduce the complexity and cost of building and maintaining applications in the cloud. 

Azure Marketplace is a digital catalog of software and data products that can be used with Azure. It includes a range of offerings from Microsoft and third-party vendors, including:  

  • Applications: Pre-built software applications that can be deployed and run-on Azure, such as web applications, mobile apps, and data analytics tools.  
  • Virtual Machines: Pre-configured virtual machines that can be deployed and run-on Azure, with a variety of operating systems and applications pre-installed.  
  • Data: Data sets and data services that can be used with Azure, such as market research data, financial data, and geographic data.  
  • Services: Cloud-based services that can be used with Azure, such as machine learning as a service, data backup and recovery services, and messaging services. 

Azure Marketplace offerings can be used to add new capabilities quickly and easily to an Azure-based solution or application, or to access data and services that can be used with Azure. They can be purchased and consumed on a pay-as-you-go basis and can be easily integrated with other Azure services.  

Azure provides a range of tools and services for data analytics and business intelligence in the cloud. These tools and services include: 

  1. Azure Synapse Analytics (formerly SQL Data Warehouse): A cloud-based data warehouse service that allows users to store and analyze large volumes of structured and unstructured data. Synapse Analytics provides a range of tools and features for querying and analyzing data, including integration with Azure Machine Learning and Azure Data Lake. 
  2. Azure Data Lake: A cloud-based data storage and analytics service that allows users to store and analyze large volumes of structured and unstructured data. Data Lake provides a range of tools and features for storing, processing, and analyzing data, including integration with Azure Synapse Analytics and Azure HDInsight. 
  3. Azure HDInsight: A cloud-based big data analytics service that allows users to process and analyze large volumes of data using popular open-source frameworks such as Apache Hadoop and Apache Spark. HDInsight can be used to perform data transformations and analytics on data stored in Azure Data Lake or other storage services. 
  4. Azure Power BI: A business intelligence and data visualization tool that allows users to create interactive reports and dashboards based on data from a variety of sources, including Azure resources and on-premises systems. Power BI provides a range of tools and features for creating and sharing reports and dashboards and can be used to visualize and analyze data from Azure Synapse Analytics, Azure Data Lake, and other data sources. 

By using these and other Azure data analytics and business intelligence tools and services, organizations can gain insights into their data and use those insights to drive business decisions and drive innovation. 

Intermediate

Azure's virtual machine (VM) pricing is based on a pay-as-you-go model, where users only pay for the resources, they consume. VMs are available in a range of sizes, with different combinations of CPU, memory, and other resources, and the cost of a VM depends on the size and the chosen options.  

In addition to the cost of the VM itself, users also pay for the underlying infrastructure, such as the storage and networking resources used by the VM. The cost of these resources is based on the type and amount of resources consumed. 

Users can choose from several pricing options for VMs, including: 

  1. Pay-as-you-go: This option charges users for the actual usage of their VMs, on an hourly basis  
  2. Reserved instances: This option allows users to purchase a reserved VM for a one- or three-year term, at a discounted rate compared to pay-as-you-go  
  3. Azure Hybrid Benefit: This option allows users to apply their on-premises Windows Server and SQL Server licenses to Azure VMs and pay only for the underlying infrastructure. 

Users can also take advantage of various Azure pricing offers and discounts, such as the Azure Free Account, which offers a set of free services and resources, and Azure Hybrid Benefit for SQL Server, which allows users to apply their on-premises SQL Server licenses to Azure SQL Database.  

It's important to note that the actual cost of using Azure VMs will depend on several factors, including the size and configuration of the VM, the type and amount of resources consumed, and the chosen pricing option. It's recommended to use Azure's pricing calculator to get an estimate of the cost for a specific workload. 

Azure Cloud Services and Azure Virtual Machines (VMs) are two options for hosting applications and services in Azure. Both options provide users with the ability to deploy and manage applications and services in the cloud, but they differ in a few key ways:

Azure Cloud Services: 

  • PaaS (Platform-as-a-Service) offering: Azure Cloud Services is a PaaS (Platform-as-a-Service) offering, which means that it provides a platform for deploying and running applications and services without the need to manage the underlying infrastructure.  
  • Applications hosted in a cloud service: Applications hosted in Azure Cloud Services run in an isolated environment called a cloud service, which consists of one or more VMs running a specific application.  
  • Automatic scaling: Azure Cloud Services automatically scales the number of VMs running an application up or down based on demand, without the need for manual intervention.  
  • Stateless design: Azure Cloud Services is designed to be stateless, which means that applications should not store any state or data on the underlying VMs. Instead, they should use Azure storage or other services for data storage.  

Azure Virtual Machines 

  • IaaS (Infrastructure-as-a-Service) offering: Azure VMs are an IaaS (Infrastructure-as-a-Service) offering, which means that they provide users with the infrastructure to run their own applications and services. 
  • Applications hosted on a VM: Applications hosted on Azure VMs run on a specific VM, which users can configure and manage as needed. 
  • Manual scaling: Azure VMs do not automatically scale based on demand. Users must manually add or remove VMs to meet their needs.
  • Stateful design: Azure VMs are stateful, which means that applications can store state and data on the underlying VM. 

In general, Azure Cloud Services is a good choice for applications that require automatic scaling and a stateless design, while Azure VMs are a good choice for applications that require more control over the underlying infrastructure and can benefit from a stateful design. 

Expect to come across this, one of the most important Microsoft Azure interview questions for experienced professionals in software development, in your next interviews.

There are a few different ways you can monitor and scale an Azure Web App:  

  1. Azure Monitor: This is a service that provides data and operational insights for various Azure resources, including Web Apps. With Azure Monitor, you can set up alerts and notifications based on specific metric thresholds or events. 
  2. Azure Portal: The Azure Portal is a web-based interface that you can use to manage and monitor your Azure resources, including Web Apps. In the Azure Portal, you can view real-time metrics for your Web App, such as CPU usage and memory consumption, and you can also set up auto-scaling based on these metrics. 
  3. Azure CLI or PowerShell: You can also use the Azure CLI or PowerShell to monitor and scale your Web App. For example, you can use the AZ webapp show command to retrieve information about a Web App, or you can use the AZ webapp scale command to change the number of instances or the size of the instances for your Web App. 
  4. Application Insights: This is a service that helps you monitor the performance and usage of your applications. You can use Application Insights to track events, exceptions, and performance issues in your Web App, and you can set up alerts based on specific thresholds or events.
  5. Custom Monitoring Solutions: You can also use custom monitoring solutions to monitor your Web App. For example, you can use a third-party monitoring tool or build your own custom solution using Azure Functions or other Azure services.

Get ready for the Azure functions interview questions and the explaination in detail.  

Azure Functions is a serverless compute service that enables users to run small pieces of code, called "functions," in response to events. Functions can be triggered by a variety of inputs, including HTTP requests, timers, and changes to data in Azure Storage.  

Azure Functions is designed to be used for tasks that are typically difficult or impractical to build using traditional web or worker roles. Some common use cases for Azure Functions include: 

  1. Automating data processing: Functions can be used to process data from sources such as Azure Storage or Azure Event Hubs and write the results to other locations. 
  2. Building event-driven applications: Functions can be triggered by events such as the creation of a new file in Azure Storage, or the receipt of a new message in an Azure Service Bus queue. 
  3. Integrating with external APIs: Functions can be used to integrate with external APIs and perform tasks such as sending emails or posting messages to social media. 
  4. Implementing microservices: Functions can be used to implement microservices, which are small, independently deployable units of functionality

Overall, Azure Functions is a good choice for tasks that require a flexible, event-driven approach, and that can benefit from the scale and reliability of a cloud platform. 

There are several ways to secure an Azure Storage account and its data: 

  1. Use Azure Identity and Access Management (IAM) to control access to the Storage account and its resources. IAM allows you to assign permissions to users, groups, and services, and to control which actions they can perform on the Storage account and its resources.  
  2. Enable Azure Storage Service Encryption for data at rest. This feature encrypts all data stored in the Storage account using AES-256 encryption.  
  3. Use Azure Private Link to access the Storage account over a private network connection, rather than over the public internet. This can help to improve security and reduce the risk of data breaches.  
  4. Enable network security groups (NSGs) to control inbound and outbound traffic to the Storage account. NSGs allow you to specify which traffic is allowed to reach the Storage account, based on source and destination IP addresses, ports, and protocols.  
  5. Use Azure Virtual Network Service Endpoints to extend the NSGs used by a virtual network to the Storage account. This allows you to control access to the Storage account using the NSGs of the virtual network.  
  6. Use Azure Private Endpoints to access the Storage account over a private network connection from within a virtual network. Private Endpoints provide an additional layer of security by allowing you to access the Storage account without exposing it to the public internet.  
  7. Use Azure AD authentication to secure access to the Storage account using Azure AD credentials. This allows you to use Azure AD to manage access to the Storage account and its resources. 

By using these security measures, you can help to ensure that your Azure Storage account and its data are secure and protected against unauthorized access and data breaches. 

Azure Storage is a cloud-based service that provides storage for various types of data, including files, blobs, tables, and queues. Each type of data is stored in a specific storage service within Azure Storage and is optimized for a particular use case.  

Here is a brief overview of the main Azure Storage types: 

  • Blob storage: Blob storage is used to store unstructured data such as images, videos, audio, and documents. It is a good choice for storing large amounts of data that doesn't need to be accessed frequently.  
  • Table storage: Table storage is used to store structured data in a NoSQL (non-relational) database. It is a good choice for storing large amounts of data that needs to be accessed quickly, and can scale to handle very large volumes of data  
  • Queue storage: Queue storage is used to store messages that can be accessed from anywhere and at any time. It is a good choice for building reliable, asynchronous, and scalable applications that need to process data in the background.  

Each storage type has its own set of features and capabilities, and the choice of which storage type to use depends on the specific needs of the application or workload. It's important to carefully consider the requirements of the application and choose the storage type that is best suited to meet those needs.  

A virtual network (VNet) in Azure is a logical representation of a network in the cloud. It allows you to create a secure, isolated network environment in Azure, and to connect it to your on-premises network, if needed.  

To set up a virtual network in Azure, follow these steps: 

  • Sign into the Azure portal  
  • In the left menu, click "Create a resource" and select "Networking" from the list of options. Click "Virtual network" to create a new virtual network.  
  • Provide a name and resource group for the virtual network and select a location.  
  • In the "Address space" section, specify the range of private IP addresses that will be used in the virtual network.  
  • In the "Subnets" section, create one or more subnets within the virtual network. Each subnet can be associated with a specific security group or access control policy.  
  • Click "Create" to create the virtual network 

Once the virtual network has been created, you can use it to connect Azure resources such as virtual machines, web apps, and databases. You can also use it to connect to your on-premises network using a VPN gateway or Azure ExpressRoute.  

The main purpose of a virtual network in Azure is to provide a secure and isolated network environment in the cloud, and to enable the connection of Azure resources to each other and to on-premises resources. It is an important building block for many Azure-based applications and workloads. 

Active Directory is the one of the services used by 90% of the organizations in the world. That’s why is very famous Azure active directory interview questions for the interviewers.  

Azure Active Directory (AD) is a cloud-based identity and access management service that provides single sign-on (SSO) and authentication services for Azure and other cloud-based resources. It is based on the same technology as on-premises Active Directory and is designed to work seamlessly with other Azure services.  

Some key features of Azure AD include: 

  • Single sign-on: Azure AD provides single sign-on (SSO) for Azure and other cloud-based resources, which allows users to sign in once and access all their applications and resources without needing to enter separate credentials for each one.  
  • Multi-factor authentication: Azure AD supports multi-factor authentication (MFA), which requires users to provide an additional form of authentication beyond their username and password. This can help to improve security and reduce the risk of unauthorized access.  
  • Identity management: Azure AD provides tools for managing user identities and permissions, including the ability to create and manage user accounts, groups, and roles  
  • Access control: Azure AD allows administrators to control access to resources based on user identity and group membership, using features such as access policies and conditional access.  
  • Security and compliance: Azure AD include features for improving security and compliance, such as security reports, alert notifications, and Azure AD Identity Protection. 

Overall, Azure AD is a powerful tool for managing identities and access to resources in the cloud and is an important component of many Azure-based applications and workloads.  

To set up a hybrid connection between on-premises and Azure resources, you will need to use one of the following connectivity options: 

  1. VPN gateway: A VPN gateway allows you to create a secure, encrypted connection between your on-premises network and an Azure virtual network. To set up a VPN gateway, you will need to create a virtual network gateway in Azure and configure it to use the VPN gateway type. Then, you will need to set up a VPN device on your on-premises network and connect it to the virtual network gateway using a VPN connection. 
  2. Azure ExpressRoute: Azure ExpressRoute is a dedicated, private network connection between your on-premises network and Azure. It allows you to connect to Azure without using the public internet and can provide higher bandwidth and lower latencies than a VPN connection. To set up Azure ExpressRoute, you will need to create an ExpressRoute circuit in Azure and configure it to connect to your on-premises network using a supported connectivity provider.

Once you have set up the hybrid connection, you will be able to access Azure resources from your on-premises network and on-premises resources from Azure. You can use this connection to migrate workloads to Azure, or to build hybrid applications that span both on-premises and cloud environments.  

It's important to note that the specific steps for setting up a hybrid connection will depend on the specific connectivity option and you’re on-premises network configuration. It is recommended to refer to the Azure documentation for detailed instructions on how to set up a hybrid connection. 

Azure Resource Manager is a service in Azure that allows users to deploy, manage, and monitor resources in the cloud. It provides a common set of tools and APIs for managing Azure resources, and allows users to deploy resources as a group, rather than individually.  

To use Azure Resource Manager, users create a resource group, which is a logical container for a set of related resources. The resource group can include resources such as virtual machines, storage accounts, and databases. Users can then use Azure Resource Manager to deploy and manage the resources in the resource group as a single unit. 

Some key features of Azure Resource Manager include: 

  1. Resource templates: Azure Resource Manager allows users to define the resources they want to deploy using resource templates written in JSON or PowerShell. These templates can be used to automate the deployment of resources and can be reused and shared with other users. 
  2. Resource dependencies: Azure Resource Manager allows users to specify dependencies between resources, which ensures that resources are deployed in the correct order. For example, a virtual machine might depend on a storage account, in which case the storage account would be deployed first. 
  3. Resource groups: Azure Resource Manager allows users to create resource groups to organize and manage their resources. Resource groups can be used to control access to resources, and to simplify the management of related resources.
  4. Resource policies: Azure Resource Manager allows users to create resource policies to enforce rules and standards for resource deployment and management. For example, a resource policy might be used to enforce the use of a specific virtual machine size or to prevent the deployment of resources in certain regions.

Azure Resource Manager is a key component of Azure deployment and is used to manage and deploy most Azure resources. It provides users with a central place to manage their resources and automate the deployment process and helps to ensure that resources are deployed and managed consistently across an organization. 

Azure Backup is a cloud-based backup service that can be used to protect on-premises and cloud workloads. It allows users to create backups of their data and applications, and to store the backups in Azure. 

To implement Azure Backup for on-premises workloads, follow these steps:  

  1. Sign into the Azure portal. 
  2. In the left menu, click "Create a resource" and select "Backup and Site Recovery" from the list of options. 
  3. Click "Backup" to create a new backup vault. 
  4. Provide a name and resource group for the backup vault and select a location. 
  5. Download and install the Azure Backup agent on the on-premises server that you want to protect. 
  6. Follow the instructions in the Azure Backup agent to register the server with the backup vault, and to configure the backup settings. 

To implement Azure Backup for cloud workloads, follow these steps:  

  1. Sign into the Azure portal. 
  2. In the left menu, click "Create a resource" and select "Backup and Site Recovery" from the list of options. 
  3. Click "Backup" to create a new backup vault. 
  4. Provide a name and resource group for the backup vault and select a location. 
  5. In the backup vault, click "Add a resource" and select the type of resource you want to protect (e.g., virtual machine, SQL Database). 
  6. Follow the instructions to configure the backup settings for the selected resource.

Once you have implemented Azure Backup for your on-premises or cloud workloads, you can use it to create backups of your data and applications, and to restore them in case of data loss or corruption. Azure Backup is a powerful tool for protecting your data and applications and can help to ensure. 

Azure Monitor is a cloud-based monitoring service that provides tools for monitoring Azure resources, applications, and services. It allows users to collect, analyze, and act on data and insights from their Azure resources in real time, and to identify and troubleshoot issues as they arise. 

To use Azure Monitor to monitor Azure resources, follow these steps:  

  1. Sign into the Azure portal. 
  2. In the left menu, click "Monitor" to access the Azure Monitor dashboard. 
  3. Select the resource you want to monitor from the list of resources in the dashboard. 
  4. In the resource blade, click "Metrics" to view the metrics for the resource. 
  5. Use the available charts and tables to view the metrics for the resource and use the filters and time range options to customize the view as needed. 
  6. Use the alerts feature to create alerts that are triggered when specific conditions are met, and to take actions such as sending notifications or running automation scripts.

Azure Monitor is a powerful tool for monitoring Azure resources and identifying issues as they arise. It provides a wide range of metrics and data points that can be used to understand the performance and health of Azure resources, and to troubleshoot problems as needed. By using Azure Monitor, you can ensure that your Azure resources are running smoothly and reliably and can take timely action to resolve any issues that may arise. 

Azure Load Balancer is a load-balancing service in Azure that distributes incoming traffic across multiple servers or resources to improve performance and availability. It can be used to load balance traffic to Azure resources such as virtual machines, web apps, and containers.

To set up Azure Load Balancer, follow these steps:

  1. Sign into the Azure portal. 
  2. In the left menu, click "Create a resource" and select "Load Balancer" from the list of options. 
  3. Click "Create" to create a new load balancer. 
  4. Provide a name and resource group for the load balancer and select a location. 
  5. In the "IP address" section, select the type of IP address you want to use for the load balancer (public or private). 
  6. In the "Backend pool" section, add the resources that you want to load balance traffic to. This can include virtual machines, web apps, or other resources. 
  7. In the "Load balancing rules" section, create one or more load balancing rules to specify how traffic should be distributed to the backend resources. 
  8. In the "Health probes" section, create one or more health probes to monitor the health of the backend resources. 
  9. Click "Create" to create the load balancer.

Once the load balancer has been created, it will begin distributing incoming traffic to the backend resources according to the load balancing rules and health probes that you have configured.  

Some benefits of using Azure Load Balancer include:  

  1. Improved performance and availability: By distributing incoming traffic across multiple resources, Azure Load Balancer can help to improve the performance and availability of your applications and services. 
  2. Increased scalability: Azure Load Balancer can scale to handle large volumes of traffic and can automatically add or remove resources from the load balancing pool as needed. 
  3. Simplified management: Azure Load Balancer provides a central point for managing private and public VMs accessibility. The user can get an entire picture of the associated VMs to the load balancer.

Don't be surprised if this pops up as one of the top Azure cloud interview questions in your next interview.

Azure Service Bus is a cloud-based messaging service that allows applications and services to send and receive messages in a reliable and scalable manner. It provides a "broker" service that enables applications to communicate with each other, even if they are running on different servers or in different locations. 

Azure Service Bus supports a variety of messaging patterns and protocols, including point-to-point messaging, publish-subscribe messaging, and request-response messaging. It can be used in a variety of scenarios, including: 

  1. Asynchronous communication: Azure Service Bus can be used to enable asynchronous communication between applications, allowing them to send and receive messages without needing to be connected at the same time.
  2. Decoupling of systems: Azure Service Bus can be used to decouple systems from each other, allowing them to communicate without direct dependencies. This can make it easier to update and maintain systems and can improve the scalability and reliability of the overall solution.
  3. Event-driven architecture: Azure Service Bus can be used to build event-driven architectures, where applications can publish and subscribe to events and messages. This can be useful for building reactive and responsive systems that can respond to changing conditions in real time.

Overall, Azure Service Bus is a powerful tool for enabling communication and integration between applications and services in the cloud. It can be used in a wide range of scenarios to enable asynchronous communication, decouple systems, and build event-driven architectures.  

Tip: Azure technical interview questions consist of the architecture of the Event bus and messaging systems and how’s different from the open-source solutions.  

Azure Traffic Manager is a cloud-based traffic management service that allows users to route incoming traffic to different endpoints based on a variety of routing policies. It can be used to improve the performance, availability, and scalability of applications and services.

To set up Azure Traffic Manager, follow these steps:

  1. Sign into the Azure portal. 
  2. In the left menu, click "Create a resource" and select "Traffic Manager profile" from the list of options. 
  3. Click "Create" to create a new Traffic Manager profile. 
  4. Provide a name and resource group for the Traffic Manager profile and select a routing method. 
  5. In the "Endpoints" section, add the endpoints that you want to route traffic to. These can include Azure resources such as virtual machines, web apps, or Azure Functions, or external endpoints such as on-premises servers or other cloud services. 
  6. In the "Monitoring" section, specify the settings for monitoring the health of the endpoints.
  7. Click "Create" to create the Traffic Manager profile. 

Once the Traffic Manager profile has been created, it will begin routing traffic to the specified endpoints according to the chosen routing method and endpoint health status.

The main purpose of Azure Traffic Manager is to route incoming traffic to the best-performing endpoint, based on the chosen routing method and endpoint health status. This can help to improve the performance, availability, and scalability of applications and services, and can enable users to build highly available, globally distributed solutions.

Azure Content Delivery Network (CDN) is a cloud-based service that allows users to deliver content such as websites, images, videos, and other static files more quickly and efficiently to users around the world. It uses a network of servers and edge locations located in strategic locations around the world to cache and deliver content, which can help to improve the performance and reduce the load on the origin server.  

To use Azure CDN to improve the performance of a website or application, follow these steps:  

  1. Sign into the Azure portal. 
  2. In the left menu, click "Create a resource" and select "Content Delivery Network" from the list of options. 
  3. Click "Create" to create a new CDN profile. 
  4. Provide a name and resource group for the CDN profile and select a pricing tier. 
  5. In the "Origin" section, specify the origin server for the content (e.g., a web server or storage account). 
  6. In the "Endpoint" section, create one or more endpoints to specify the locations where the content will be cached and delivered. 
  7. Click "Create" to create the CDN profile. 

Once the CDN profile has been created, you can start using it to deliver content more quickly and efficiently to users around the world. To do this, you will need to update the URLs of your content to point to the CDN endpoint, rather than the origin server.  

Azure CDN is a powerful tool for improving the performance of websites and applications and can help to reduce load times and improve the user experience for users around the world. It is particularly useful for delivering static content such as images, videos, and other files, and can be used to accelerate the delivery of content from a variety of sources, including Azure storage, web servers, and other cloud services. 

A platform engineer has the responsibility of configuring the CDN for the service and the configuration details are mostly asked in Azure developer interview questions. 

Azure Automation is a cloud-based service that allows users to automate the deployment, management, and monitoring of Azure resources and services. It provides a set of tools and features for creating, scheduling, and running automation scripts, and can be used to automate a wide range of tasks in Azure.  

To set up Azure Automation, follow these steps:  

  1. Sign into the Azure portal. 
  2. In the left menu, click "Create a resource" and select "Automation" from the list of options. 3. Click "Create" to create a new Automation account. 
  3. Provide a name and resource group for the Automation account and select a location. 
  4. Click "Create" to create the Automation account. 

Once the Automation account has been created, you can use it to automate tasks in Azure by creating and scheduling runbooks. A runbook is a PowerShell or Python script that performs a specific task or series of tasks in Azure. You can create runbooks manually, or by importing existing scripts.  

To schedule a runbook, follow these steps:  

  1. In the Automation account, click "Runbooks" in the left menu. 
  2. Click "Add a runbook" to create a new runbook or select an existing runbook from the list. 3. Click "Schedule" to open the schedule settings for the runbook. 
  3. Provide a name and description for the schedule, and specify the start time, frequency, and other settings as needed. 
  4. Click "Create" to create the schedule. 

Azure Automation is a powerful tool for automating tasks in Azure and can help to improve the efficiency and reliability of your Azure deployment. It can be used to automate tasks such as creating and managing resources, deploying applications, and monitoring and reporting on resource usage. By using Azure Automation, you can reduce the time and effort needed to manage your Azure resources. 

Azure Event Grid is a cloud-based event-routing service that allows users to build event-based systems in Azure. It enables users to create custom event handlers that can respond to events and perform tasks based on those events.  

To use Azure Event Grid to enable event-based computing, follow these steps:  

  1. Sign into the Azure portal. 
  2. In the left menu, click "Create a resource" and select "Event Grid" from the list of options. 3. Click "Create" to create a new Event Grid topic. 
  3. Provide a name and resource group for the Event Grid topic and select a location. 
  4. In the "Endpoint" section, specify the endpoint that will receive the events (e.g., a webhook, storage queue, or Azure function). 
  5. In the "Subscription" section, create one or more subscriptions to specify the events that you want to receive, and the filters and routing rules for those events. 
  6. Click "Create" to create the Event Grid topic. 

Once the Event Grid topic has been created, it will begin generating and routing events based on the subscriptions and filters that you have configured. When an event is generated, it will be delivered to the specified endpoint, which can then process the event and perform any necessary tasks.  

Azure Event Grid is a powerful tool for enabling event-based computing in Azure. It allows users to build systems that can respond to events in real time, and to perform tasks based on those events. This can be useful for building reactive and responsive systems that can adapt to changing conditions in real time, and can enable users to build highly available, globally distributed solutions.  

Azure API Management is a cloud-based service that allows users to create, publish, and manage APIs in Azure. It provides a set of tools and features for creating, securing, and scaling APIs, and can be used to enable API-based integration between applications and services.  

To set up Azure API Management, follow these steps:  

  1. Sign into the Azure portal. 
  2. In the left menu, click "Create a resource" and select "API Management" from the list of options. 
  3. Click "Create" to create a new API Management instance. 
  4. Provide a name and resource group for the API Management instance and select a location and pricing tier. 
  5. Click "Create" to create the API Management instance. 

Once the API Management instance has been created, you can use it to create, publish, and manage APIs in Azure.  

To create an API, follow these steps:  

  1. In the API Management instance, click "APIs" in the left menu. 
  2. Click "Add an API" to create a new API. 
  3. Provide a name and description for the API and specify the backend service that the API will access. 
  4. In the "API definition" section, define the operations and parameters for the API. 
  5. Click "Save" to create the API. 

Azure API Management is a powerful tool for creating, publishing, and managing APIs in Azure. It provides a wide range of tools and features for creating, securing, and scaling APIs, and can be used to enable API-based integration between applications and services. Some benefits of using Azure API Management include:  

  1. Improved security: Azure API Management provides a variety of security features and controls for protecting APIs, including authentication, authorization, and rate limiting. 
  2. Increased scalability: Azure API Management can scale to handle large volumes of API traffic and can automatically add or remove resources as needed. 
  3. Enhanced management: Azure API Management provides a central point of control for managing APIs, including features for monitoring, diagnostics, and analytics. 

Overall, Azure API Management is a valuable tool for building, deploying, and managing APIs in Azure, and can help users to create highly available, scalable, and secure APIs in the cloud.  

Fault domains and update domains are concepts used in Azure to provide resilience and availability for applications and services.  

  1. Fault domains refer to the physical infrastructure that a resource is hosted on in Azure. Each fault domain represents a group of underlying hardware, such as servers and storage, that is isolated from other fault domains in the same Azure region. This isolation helps to ensure that if there is a hardware failure or maintenance event in one fault domain, it will not impact resources in other fault domains. 
  2. Update domains refer to the logical groups of resources that are updated together during a maintenance event or when applying an update. Each update domain represents a group of resources that can be taken offline and updated independently of other update domains. This allows updates to be applied to an application or service without affecting the availability of the entire application or service. By using fault domains and update domains, users can build applications and services that are more resilient to hardware failures and maintenance events and can ensure that their applications and services remain available during updates.

Advanced

Azure Traffic Manager is a cloud-based load balancing service that enables you to distribute incoming traffic across your application endpoints. It helps you improve the availability and performance of your application by distributing traffic across multiple locations.  

Traffic Manager uses a variety of methods to route traffic to the optimal endpoint based on the routing method you choose. The following are the different load balancing methods that Traffic Manager supports: 

  1. Performance routing: Traffic Manager routes traffic to the endpoint with the best performance, based on latency measurements. 
  2. Weighted routing: Traffic Manager routes traffic to the endpoints based on a weight assigned to each endpoint. This allows you to specify the percentage of traffic that should be routed to each endpoint. 
  3. Priority routing: Traffic Manager routes traffic to the endpoint with the highest priority. If an endpoint with a higher priority becomes unavailable, Traffic Manager routes traffic to the next available endpoint with a lower priority. 
  4. Geographic routing: Traffic Manager routes traffic to the endpoint in the geographic location that is closest to the user. 
  5. Multivalued routing: Traffic Manager returns the endpoint with the lowest priority that is available, based on a configured list of endpoints. This is useful when you have multiple endpoints for the same service and want to use all of them to distribute the traffic. 

Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) is a fully managed Kubernetes service that enables you to deploy and manage containerized applications at scale. It provides a range of features to help you deploy and manage your applications, including:  

  1. Automatic scaling: AKS automatically scales the number of nodes in the cluster based on the workload demands, ensuring that your applications have the resources they need to run smoothly. 
  2. Deployment options: AKS supports several deployment options, including rolling deployments, blue/green deployments, and canary deployments, to help you safely and quickly deploy your applications. 
  3. Monitoring and logging: AKS integrates with Azure Monitor to provide detailed monitoring and logging of your applications, helping you identify and troubleshoot issues. 
  4. Security: AKS integrates with Azure Active Directory to provide role-based access control, enabling you to control who can access your cluster and what actions they can perform. 
  5. Integration with other Azure services: AKS integrates with other Azure services, such as Azure Container Registry, Azure DevOps, and Azure Monitor, to provide a seamless experience for deploying and managing your containerized applications. 

By using AKS, you can focus on building and deploying your applications while the service handles the underlying infrastructure and management tasks. 

One of the most common Azure interview questions for experienced professionals. Don't miss this one. 

Designing and implementing a highly available and scalable Azure solution involves several steps. Here is a general approach that can be followed: 

  1. Identify the requirements for the solution, including the expected workload, traffic patterns, and availability requirements. 
  2. Choose the appropriate Azure services and features to meet the requirements. This may include using Azure Virtual Machines, Azure App Services, Azure Functions, Azure Load Balancer, Azure Traffic Manager, Azure Storage, and Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2, among others. 
  3. Configure the chosen services to be highly available and scalable. This may involve setting up load balancing, configuring auto-scaling, implementing failover and disaster recovery strategies, and using caching and other performance optimization techniques. 
  4. Test and validate the solution to ensure that it meets the availability and scalability requirements. This may involve conducting load testing, stress testing, and failover testing. 
  5. Monitor and troubleshoot the solution to ensure that it remains highly available and scalable over time. This may involve using Azure Monitor and Azure Log Analytics to monitor the performance and availability of the solution, and taking corrective action as needed.
  6. Continuously optimize the solution to ensure that it remains highly available and scalable as the workload and traffic patterns change over time. This may involve modifying the configuration of the services, implementing new optimization techniques, and adapting the solution as new Azure services and features become available.

In Azure, a resource group is a logical container that is used to group together related resources. A subscription is a billing entity that is used to track the use of Azure services.

Here are some key differences between resource groups and subscriptions:

  • Scope: A resource group can contain resources from different subscriptions, while a subscription can contain resources from different resource groups.
  • Management: Resource groups are used to manage the lifecycle of related resources, such as deploying, updating, and deleting them. Subscriptions are used to manage the billing and access to Azure services.
  • Quotas: Subscriptions have quotas that limit the number and type of resources that can be created, while resource groups do not have quotas.
  • Cost: Subscriptions are billed for the use of Azure services, while resource groups do not incur charges on their own. However, the resources within a resource group may incur charges based on their usage.

In general, resource groups are used to organize and manage related resources, while subscriptions are used to track the use of Azure services and manage billing. It is common to use resource groups to group together resources that are used for a specific purpose or project, and to use subscriptions to track the overall usage and costs of Azure services within an organization. 

Azure App Services is a fully managed platform-as-a-service (PaaS) offering that enables developers to build, deploy, and scale web, mobile, and API applications in the cloud. Azure App Services provides a range of features and capabilities, including support for multiple programming languages, automatic scaling, built-in security, and integration with other Azure services.  

Azure Functions is a serverless compute service that enables developers to run code on-demand in response to events or triggers. Azure Functions is designed to be lightweight and efficient, and it is often used to build microservices, automate tasks, and integrate with other systems.  

Azure Container Instances is a fast and simple way to run containerized workloads in Azure. Azure Container Instances provides on-demand, pay-per-use container orchestration, and it is often used to run applications in a cloud-native, container-based architecture.  

Here are some key differences between Azure App Services, Azure Functions, and Azure Container Instances:  

  • Platform: Azure App Services is a fully managed PaaS offering, while Azure Functions is a serverless compute service and Azure Container Instances is a container orchestration service.  
  • Use cases: Azure App Services is well-suited for building web, mobile, and API applications, while Azure Functions is often used for tasks such as automating workflows, processing data, and integrating with other systems. Azure Container Instances is often used to run containerized workloads in a cloud-native architecture.  
  • Scaling: Azure App Services and Azure Functions can automatically scale based on demand, while Azure Container Instances can be manually scaled by increasing the number of container instances.  
  • Pricing: Azure App Services, Azure Functions, and Azure Container Instances are charged based on their usage, with different pricing models for each service. Azure App Services is typically priced based on the number of instances and the features used, while Azure Functions is priced based on the number of executions and the duration of each execution. Azure Container Instances is priced based on the number of container instances and the duration of their use.  

Designing and implementing a disaster recovery (DR) strategy using Azure involves several steps. Here is a general approach that can be followed:  

  1. Identify the critical systems and data that need to be protected in the event of a disaster. This may include applications, databases, files, and other resources. 
  2. Determine the recovery objectives for the critical systems and data, including the required recovery time objective (RTO) and recovery point objective (RPO). 
  3. Choose the appropriate Azure services and features to meet the recovery objectives. This may include using Azure Virtual Machines, Azure App Services, Azure Functions, Azure Load Balancer, Azure Traffic Manager, Azure Storage, and Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2, among others. 
  4. Set up replication and failover for the critical systems and data. This may involve using Azure Site Recovery, Azure Backup, Azure Disaster Recovery, and other Azure services to replicate data and automate the failover process. 
  5. Test and validate the disaster recovery solution to ensure that it meets the recovery objectives. This may involve conducting failover tests and disaster recovery drills. 
  6. Monitor and maintain the disaster recovery solution to ensure that it remains effective over time. This may involve updating the configuration of the services, testing the solution regularly, and adapting the solution as new Azure services and features become available. 
  7. Establish a plan for communicating with stakeholders and responding to disasters. This may involve defining roles and responsibilities, establishing communication channels, and creating procedures for activating the disaster recovery solution. 

By following this approach, it is possible to design and implement a comprehensive disaster recovery strategy using Azure that meets the needs of the organization and ensures that critical systems and data can be recovered quickly in the event of a disaster. 

Azure Traffic Manager is a DNS-based traffic management service that enables you to distribute traffic to various endpoints based on rules that you define. It works by using DNS to direct traffic to the optimal endpoint based on the routing method that you have chosen.  

There are several routing methods available in Azure Traffic Manager, including performance, weighted, and geographic routing. Performance routing directs traffic to the endpoint that has the lowest network latency, while weighted routing directs traffic based on the weights that you assign to each endpoint. Geographic routing directs traffic based on the location of the user, allowing you to target specific regions or countries.  

Azure Traffic Manager can be used to improve the performance of a solution in several ways:  

  • Load balancing: By distributing traffic across multiple endpoints, Azure Traffic Manager can help to balance the load and improve the performance of the solution.  
  • Global distribution: By using Azure Traffic Manager, you can distribute traffic to endpoints located in different regions around the world, which can improve the performance of the solution for users located far from the primary endpoint.  
  • High availability: Azure Traffic Manager can be used to create a highly available solution by directing traffic to a secondary endpoint if the primary endpoint becomes unavailable.  
  • Performance optimization: By using the performance routing method, Azure Traffic Manager can automatically direct traffic to the endpoint with the lowest network latency, which can improve the overall performance of the solution.  

By using Azure Traffic Manager, you can improve the performance and availability of a solution and provide a better experience for users.  

Azure Monitor is a monitoring service in Azure that provides visibility into the performance, availability, and usage of Azure resources and applications. Azure Log Analytics is a log management service in Azure that enables you to collect, search, and analyze log data from a variety of sources. Both Azure Monitor and Azure Log Analytics can be used to monitor and troubleshoot an Azure solution.  

Here are some ways that you can use Azure Monitor and Azure Log Analytics to monitor and troubleshoot an Azure solution:  

  1. Monitor resource performance: Azure Monitor allows you to monitor the performance of Azure resources, such as virtual machines, databases, and storage accounts. You can use Azure Monitor to set up alerts to notify you when performance thresholds are exceeded, and you can use the Azure Monitor dashboards to visualize performance data. 
  2. Analyze logs: Azure Log Analytics allows you to collect and analyze log data from Azure resources, such as Azure Virtual Machines and Azure App Services. You can use Azure Log Analytics to search and filter log data, and you can use it to create queries and visualizations to identify trends and patterns.  
  3. Diagnose issues: By combining the data from Azure Monitor and Azure Log Analytics, you can diagnose issues with an Azure solution by identifying patterns and correlations between different metrics and log entries.  
  4. Resolve issues: Once you have identified the root cause of an issue, you can use Azure Monitor and Azure Log Analytics to help you resolve the issue. For example, you can use Azure Monitor alerts to trigger automated remediation actions, or you can use Azure Log Analytics to identify and fix issues in your code. By using Azure Monitor and Azure Log Analytics, you can gain visibility into the performance and health of an Azure solution and identify and resolve issues as they arise. 

Azure Storage is a cloud storage service in Azure that provides a range of options for storing and managing data in the cloud. Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 is a cloud storage service in Azure that is optimized for storing and processing large amounts of data.  

Here are some key differences between Azure Storage and Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2:  

  1. Purpose: Azure Storage is a general-purpose storage service that is suitable for storing a variety of data types, such as files, documents, media, and structured data. Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 is specifically designed for storing and processing large amounts of data, such as data from analytics and machine learning workloads.  
  2. Data structure: Azure Storage provides a range of storage options, including blobs, tables, queues, and files. Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 uses a hierarchical file system structure with support for folders and files, like a traditional file system.  
  3. Data access: Azure Storage supports various data access patterns, including batch, real-time, and streaming. Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 supports batch and real-time data access, and it is optimized for high-throughput data access using technologies such as distributed file system protocols and zero-copy data access.  
  4. Security: Both Azure Storage and Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 support security features such as encryption at rest, role-based access control, and network isolation. However, Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 includes additional security features, such as data lake firewall and virtual network service endpoints.  

In general, Azure Storage is a versatile storage service that is suitable for a wide range of scenarios, while Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 is optimized for storing and processing large amounts of data for analytics and machine learning workloads.  

Azure Data Factory is a cloud-based data integration service that enables you to create, schedule, and orchestrate data pipelines to move and transform data between various data stores and services. Here is a general approach to designing and implementing a data pipeline using Azure Data Factory:  

  • Identify the data sources and destinations that you want to include in the data pipeline. This may include data stored in Azure services, such as Azure SQL Database, Azure Blob Storage, and Azure Data Lake Storage, as well as data stored in on-premises systems or external cloud services.  
  • Define the data transformation and processing logic that you want to apply to the data as it flows through the pipeline. This may involve using data transformation activities, such as copy, aggregate, filter, and join, as well as custom logic implemented using Azure Functions or other Azure services.  
  • Create a data factory in Azure and set up the necessary connections and credentials to access the data sources and destinations.  
  • Design the data pipeline using the Azure Data Factory visual interface or the Azure Data Factory REST API. This involves specifying the data sources and destinations, as well as the data transformation and processing logic.  
  • Test and validate the data pipeline to ensure that it is working as expected. This may involve running the pipeline manually or scheduling it to run at regular intervals.  
  • Monitor and troubleshoot the data pipeline as needed. This may involve using Azure Monitor and Azure Log Analytics to track the performance and health of the pipeline, and taking corrective action as needed.  

By following this approach, you can design and implement a data pipeline using Azure Data Factory to move and transform data between various data stores and services. 

Azure Stream Analytics is a real-time analytics and event processing service in Azure that enables you to analyze and process data streams in near real-time. It is designed to scale to handle high volumes of data and to provide low-latency processing of data streams.  

Azure Stream Analytics works by taking in data streams from a variety of sources, such as IoT devices, web applications, and social media platforms, and applying a series of transformations and queries to the data. The data can then be output to various destinations, such as Azure Storage, Azure Event Hubs, Azure Functions, and Azure Power BI.  

Azure Stream Analytics supports a range of transformations and queries, including aggregations, filtering, windowing, and joins. It also supports custom logic implemented using Azure Functions or other Azure services. Azure Stream Analytics can be used to process real-time data streams in a variety of scenarios, including:  

  1. IoT: Azure Stream Analytics can be used to process data streams from IoT devices and sensors, such as temperature readings, location data, and telemetry data.  
  2. Financial data: Azure Stream Analytics can be used to process real-time financial data, such as stock prices, trade data, and market data.  
  3. Social media data: Azure Stream Analytics can be used to process real-time social media data, such as tweets, posts, and comments.
  4. Clickstream data: Azure Stream Analytics can be used to process real-time clickstream data, such as website traffic data, to identify trends and patterns.  

By using Azure Stream Analytics, you can analyze and process real-time data streams in near real-time, and gain insights that can inform decision making and drive business outcomes.  

Azure Machine Learning is a cloud-based platform for developing, deploying, and managing machine learning models. Here is a general approach to designing and implementing a machine learning solution using Azure Machine Learning:

  • Identify the business problem that you want to solve using machine learning and define the desired outcomes and performance goals for the solution.
  • Gather and prepare the data that will be used to train and test the machine learning model. This may involve collecting data from various sources, cleaning and preprocessing the data, and splitting the data into training and test sets.
  • Choose the appropriate machine learning algorithm and model type based on the nature of the problem and the characteristics of the data.
  • Train the machine learning model using the training data and the chosen algorithm. This may involve adjusting the model hyperparameters and fine-tuning the model to optimize its performance.
  • Evaluate the performance of the machine learning model using the test data. This may involve calculating performance metrics, such as accuracy, precision, and recall, to assess the model's effectiveness.
  • Deploy the machine learning model to a production environment using Azure Machine Learning. This may involve setting up an Azure Machine Learning workspace and creating a machine learning deployment environment.
  • Monitor and maintain the machine learning model over time. This may involve monitoring the performance of the model, retraining the model as needed, and adapting the model as new data becomes available or the business requirements change.

By following this approach, you can design and implement a machine learning solution using Azure Machine Learning that addresses a business problem and delivers the desired outcomes.

A staple in Azure basic interview questions, be prepared to answer this one.  

Azure Container Registry is a managed registry service in Azure that enables you to store, manage, and deploy container images. It is based on the open-source Docker registry and is compatible with the Docker Container Registry API.

Azure Container Registry can be used to store and manage container images for use with Azure Container Instances, Azure Kubernetes Service, and other Azure services that support containers. It supports private and public container image repositories, and it provides features such as image signing and scanning and image retention policies.

Here are some ways that you can use Azure Container Registry to manage container images:

  1. Store container images: Azure Container Registry allows you to store and manage container images in a secure and scalable manner. You can use it to store container images that are used in production environments, as well as images that are used for development and testing.
  2. Collaborate on container images: Azure Container Registry provides collaboration features, such as image tagging and versioning, that allow multiple developers to work on the same container image.
  3. Secure container images: Azure Container Registry supports image signing and scanning, which allows you to ensure the integrity and security of your container images. It also supports image retention policies, which allow you to control how long images are retained in the registry.
  4. Deploy container images: Azure Container Registry integrates.

Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) is a cloud-based identity and access management service that enables organizations to manage user identities and access to resources. Azure AD B2C is a cloud-based identity management service that enables organizations to securely manage the authentication and authorization of external users, such as customers and partners.  

Here are some key differences between Azure AD and Azure AD B2C:  

  1. Purpose: Azure AD is designed to manage the identities and access of employees, contractors, and other internal users, while Azure AD B2C is designed to manage the identities and access of external users, such as customers and partners.  
  2. Authentication and authorization: Azure AD provide authentication and authorization services for applications and resources within an organization, while Azure AD B2C provides these services for applications and resources that are accessed by external users.  
  3. Identity providers: Azure AD supports a variety of identity providers, including social identity providers like Google and Facebook, while Azure AD B2C supports a broader range of identity providers, including social identity providers, email, and phone-based identity providers.  
  4. Customization: Azure AD B2C allows for more customization of the user experience, including the ability to customize the login and registration pages, and to define custom policies for different types of users.  

Both Azure AD and Azure AD B2C can be used to secure an application by providing authentication and authorization services. However, the choice between the two will depend on the type of users that the application is intended for and the level of customization that is required.  

Azure Global VNET Peering is a feature in Azure that enables you to connect virtual networks (VNETs) in different Azure regions using a private network connection. It allows you to create a network topology that spans multiple regions, and to establish secure and efficient communication between resources in different regions.  

Here is a general approach to designing and implementing a multi-region solution using Azure Global VNET Peering:  

  • Identify the regions that you want to include in the multi-region solution and determine the workloads and resources that will be deployed in each region.  
  • Create VNETs in each region and configure the VNETs to meet the networking requirements of the workloads and resources that will be deployed in each region.  
  • Enable Azure Global VNET Peering on the VNETs that you want to connect.  
  • Configure the VNET peering connections between the VNETs in different regions. This may involve specifying the VNETs to be peered, and configuring the peering settings, such as the peering mode and the traffic direction.  
  • Configure the routing and security rules for the VNET peering connections, as needed. This may involve defining network security groups (NSGs) and route tables to control access to resources and to specify the traffic flow between the VNETs.  
  • Test and validate the VNET peering connections to ensure that they are working as expected. This may involve pinging or connecting to resources in different regions to verify connectivity.  
  • Monitor and maintain the VNET peering connections over time. This may involve monitoring the performance and health of the connections, and taking corrective action as needed.  

By following this approach, you can design and implement a multi-region solution using Azure Global VNET Peering that enables efficient and secure communication between resources in different regions.  

Azure Cosmos DB is a globally distributed, multi-model database service in Azure that enables you to store and retrieve data at scale. It supports a variety of data models, including document, key-value, graph, and column-family, and it offers multiple APIs, including SQL, MongoDB, Cassandra, and Azure Table Storage, allowing you to access data using the programming language and framework of your choice.

Azure Cosmos DB is designed to provide low-latency, highly available, and scalable data access, and it offers several features to support these capabilities:

  • Global distribution: Azure Cosmos DB allows you to replicate data across multiple regions around the world, enabling you to store and retrieve data with low latency from anywhere in the world.
  • Multiple consistency levels: Azure Cosmos DB allows you to choose from multiple consistency levels, ranging from strong consistency to eventual consistency, to match your data access and performance requirements.
  • Unlimited throughput and storage: Azure Cosmos DB allow you to provision unlimited throughput and storage, enabling you to scale your database up or down as needed.
  • Multiple data models and APIs: Azure Cosmos DB supports multiple data models and APIs, allowing you to choose the best fit for your data and application needs.

Azure Cosmos DB can be used to store and retrieve data at scale in a variety of scenarios, including web, mobile, gaming, and IoT applications. It can be accessed using the Azure Cosmos DB SDKs or the Azure Cosmos DB REST API, and it can be integrated with Azure services such as Azure Functions and Azure Stream Analytics.

If your Azure Virtual Machine (VM) encounters issues caused by user configurations or host infrastructure, there are a few steps you can take to troubleshoot and resolve the issue:  

  1. Check the status and health of the VM: Check the Azure portal or use Azure Monitor to check the status and health of the VM. This may help you identify any issues with the VM itself, such as resource exhaustion or network connectivity issues.  
  2. Check the host infrastructure: If the issue is related to the host infrastructure, such as hardware or network issues, you can try to restart the VM or move it to a different host.  
  3. Check the VM logs: You can check the VM logs, such as the event logs and the system logs, to identify any errors or warning messages that may be related to the issue.  
  4. Check the VM configurations: You can check the VM configurations, such as the installed software and the system settings, to see if there are any user-configured changes that may have caused the issue.  
  5. Check for updates: You can check for updates to the VM or the host infrastructure to see if installing the latest updates may resolve the issue.  
  6. Consider restoring the VM: If the issue cannot be resolved using the above steps, you may want to consider restoring the VM to a previous state using a VM snapshot or a VM backup. By following these steps, you may be able to identify and resolve issues with your Azure VM that are caused by user configurations or host infrastructure.  

This is a regular feature in the list of Azure developer interview questions, be ready to tackle it. 

To resize a virtual machine (VM) in Azure Availability Set, you can use the Azure portal or Azure PowerShell. Here is a general outline of the process:

  1. Determine the desired size of the VM: Before resizing the VM, you should determine the desired size of the VM, taking into consideration the workload requirements and the available VM sizes in Azure.  
  2. Check the VM size limits: Some VMs may have size limits due to the underlying hardware or the availability set configuration. You should check the VM size limits to ensure that the desired size is supported.  
  3. Stop the VM: To resize the VM, you need to stop it first. You can do this from the Azure portal by going to the VM's Overview page and clicking the "Stop" button. Alternatively, you can use Azure PowerShell to stop the VM using the Stop-AzVM cmdlet.  
  4. Change the VM size: Once the VM is stopped, you can change the VM size by going to the VM's Overview page and clicking the "Size" button. Alternatively, you can use Azure PowerShell to change the VM size using the Set-AzVMSize cmdlet.  
  5. Start the VM: After changing the VM size, you can start the VM by going to the VM's Overview page and clicking the "Start" button. Alternatively, you can use Azure PowerShell to start the VM using the Start-AzVM cmdlet.  

By following these steps, you can resize a VM in Azure Availability Set to the desired size. Note that resizing a VM may result in data loss or data migration, depending on the workload and the underlying storage configuration. You should consider these impacts before resizing the VM.  

Expect to come across this, one of the most important Microsoft Azure basic interview questions for experienced professionals, in your next interviews.

To be able to monitor the metrics and logs of a Linux Azure Virtual Machine (VM), you need to set up Azure Monitor to collect the data from the VM. Here are the steps you can follow to set up Azure Monitor for a Linux VM:

  1. Install the Azure Monitor agent: The Azure Monitor agent is a software component that runs on the VM and collects the metrics and logs data from the VM. To install the agent, you can use a package manager such as yum or apt-get, or you can use the Azure Monitor Agent installation script.
  2. Configure the Azure Monitor agent: After installing the agent, you need to configure it to specify the data to collect and the destination to send the data to. You can use the Azure Monitor Agent configuration file to specify the configuration settings.
  3. Enable the required logs and metrics: Azure Monitor supports a wide range of logs and metrics for Linux VMs. You can enable the logs and metrics that you want to collect by modifying the Azure Monitor Agent configuration file or using the Azure Monitor Agent command-line interface.
  4. Verify the data collection: After configuring the Azure Monitor agent, you can verify that the data is being collected by checking the Azure Monitor metrics and logs in the Azure portal or using Azure Monitor Log Analytics.

By following these steps, you can set up Azure Monitor to collect the metrics and logs of a Linux VM, allowing you to monitor the performance and health of the VM.

Yes, Azure supports continuous integration/deployment (CI/CD) of custom containers using Azure Container Registry and Azure Container Instances.  

Here is a general outline of the process:  

  1. Set up Azure Container Registry: Azure Container Registry is a managed registry service in Azure that enables you to store, manage, and deploy container images. You can use Azure Container Registry to host your custom Docker container images.  
  2. Set up Azure Container Instances: Azure Container Instances is a service in Azure that enables you to quickly deploy and manage containers in Azure. You can use Azure Container Instances to host your web app or other workloads that use custom containers.  
  3. Set up a CI/CD pipeline: You can use Azure DevOps or other CI/CD tools to set up a pipeline that builds and tests the custom container image, and then pushes the image to Azure Container Registry. You can also set up the pipeline to deploy the custom container image to Azure Container Instances when the image is updated.  

By setting up Azure Container Registry and Azure Container Instances and using a CI/CD pipeline to manage the build and deployment process, you can enable continuous integration/deployment of custom containers in Azure. This allows you to update your custom container images and deploy the updates to Azure Container Instances in a consistent and automated manner. 

These Azure migration interview questions generally asked by the interviewer and can be explained in detail. 

I would take to ensure a successful migration of on-premises workloads to Azure:  

  • Assess the workloads to be migrated: The first step in the migration process is to assess the workloads that need to be migrated. This involves identifying the dependencies and interdependencies of the workloads, as well as any constraints or requirements that need to be considered during the migration.  
  • Plan the migration: Once the workloads have been assessed, the next step is to plan the migration. This involves creating a timeline for the migration, identifying the resources that will be needed, and creating a budget for the migration.  
  • Prepare the on-premises environment: Before the migration can begin, the on-premises environment needs to be prepared. This includes ensuring that all necessary updates and patches have been applied, and that the environment is configured to support the migration.  
  • Migrate the workloads: Once the on-premises environment is ready, the actual migration of the workloads can begin. This involves transferring the data and applications to Azure and configuring them to run in the cloud.  
  • Test and validate the migrated workloads: After the workloads have been migrated, it is important to test and validate them to ensure that they are functioning correctly in Azure. This may involve running performance tests, stress tests, and other types of testing to ensure that the workloads are running as expected.  
  • Monitor and optimize the migrated workloads: Once the workloads have been migrated and tested, the final step is to monitor and optimize them to ensure that they are running efficiently and effectively in Azure. This may involve adjusting resource allocation, implementing performance monitoring, and making other changes as needed.  

Several Azure services could potentially be used to host a web application, depending on the specific requirements and needs of the application. Some potential options might include:  

  1. Azure App Service: This is a fully managed platform-as-a-service (PaaS) that enables you to build, deploy, and scale web, mobile, and API applications. It includes support for multiple programming languages, frameworks, and deployment options and can be used to host both web applications and APIs.  
  2. Azure Virtual Machines: This service enables you to create and manage virtual machines (VMs) in the cloud. It can be used to host web applications by creating a VM and installing the necessary software and applications on it. 
  3. Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS): This is a fully managed service that enables you to deploy and manage containerized applications on Azure. It can be used to host web applications by packaging the application in a container and deploying it to AKS.  

In choosing an Azure service to host a web application, it is important to consider the specific requirements and needs of the application, as well as any constraints or limitations that may need to be considered. For example, if the application requires a fully managed platform-as-a-service with support for multiple programming languages and frameworks, then a service like Azure App Service might be a good fit. 

On the other hand, if the application requires more control and flexibility, or if it needs to be deployed on specific hardware or operating system configurations, then a service like Azure Virtual Machines or AKS might be a better choice. 

Don't be surprised if this pops up as one of the top Azure interview questions in your next interview.

There are several Azure services that can be used to ensure high availability and low latency for Azure resources in a global environment. Some potential options might include:  

  1. Azure Traffic Manager: This is a service that enables you to distribute traffic across multiple resources, such as web apps, APIs, or virtual machines, based on rules that you define. It can be used to ensure that users are directed to the nearest or best-performing resource, which can help to improve the performance and availability of the resources.  
  2. Azure Content Delivery Network (CDN): This is a service that enables you to deliver static and dynamic content, such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, images, and videos, to users with low latency and high transfer speeds. It can be used to improve the performance of web applications, APIs, and other types of content that are accessed by users around the world.  
  3. Azure Global VNet Peering: This is a service that enables you to connect virtual networks (VNets) in different regions directly, using the Microsoft global network. It can be used to improve the performance and reliability of communication between resources in different regions, as well as to reduce network latency and costs.  
  4. Azure Private Link: This is a service that enables you to securely access Azure PaaS services, such as Azure Storage and Azure SQL Database, over a private network connection. It can be used to improve the security and performance of communication between resources in different regions, as well as to reduce network latency and costs.  

By using these and other Azure services, you can ensure high availability and low latency for Azure resources in a global environment. It is important to consider the specific requirements and needs of the resources, as well as any constraints or limitations that may need to be considered, when choosing the appropriate services to use.  

There are several options that you could consider if you need to run a legacy application in Azure using Azure Functions:  

  • Containerize the application: One option is to containerize the application using a tool like Docker. This involves packaging the application and its dependencies in a container image, which can then be deployed to Azure Functions using a runtime that supports containers, such as the Azure Functions Premium plan.  
  • Use Azure Functions Proxies: Another option is to use Azure Functions Proxies to redirect traffic from an Azure Functions endpoint to the legacy application. This can be useful if the legacy application is hosted on-premises or in another cloud environment, and you want to use Azure Functions as a front-end to the application.  
  • Use Azure Functions to trigger an action: If the legacy application exposes an API or other means of programmatic interaction, you can use Azure Functions to trigger an action in the application. For example, you could use an HTTP trigger in Azure Functions to send a request to the legacy application, or you could use a timer trigger to schedule periodic actions in the application.  
  • Use Azure Virtual Machines: If none of the above options are feasible or appropriate, you may need to consider hosting the legacy application in an Azure Virtual Machine (VM). This would involve creating a VM and installing the necessary software and applications on it, and then using Azure Functions to trigger actions or processes in the VM as needed.  

It is important to carefully assess the compatibility and requirements of the legacy application when determining the most appropriate solution for running it in Azure using Azure Functions. You may need to try multiple approaches or consider a combination of the above options to find the best solution.

This a common occurrence in the list of Azure administrator interview questions, don't miss this one.  

There are several Azure services that could potentially be used to host an IoT solution, depending on the specific requirements and needs of the solution. Some potential options might include:  

  1. Azure IoT Hub: This is a cloud-based service that enables secure communication and data transfer between IoT devices and the cloud. It can be used to process, store, and analyze large amounts of data generated by IoT devices, as well as to manage device identities and authenticate devices.  
  2. Azure Stream Analytics: This is a real-time data processing and analytics service that can be used to analyze streams of data generated by IoT devices in near real-time. It can be used to identify patterns and trends, and to trigger alerts or other actions based on the data.  
  3. Azure Functions: This is a serverless compute service that can be used to build and run eventdriven applications. It can be used to process data generated by IoT devices in real-time, and to trigger other actions based on the data.  
  4. Azure Event Grid: This is a service that enables real-time event-based communication between Azure services and applications. It can be used to trigger actions or notifications based on events generated by IoT devices.  

In choosing an Azure service to host an IoT solution, it is important to consider the specific requirements and needs of the solution, as well as any constraints or limitations that may need to be considered. For example, if the solution requires real-time data processing and analytics, then a service like Azure Stream Analytics or Azure Functions might be a good fit. On the other hand, if the focus of the solution is on secure communication and data transfer between devices and the cloud, then a service like Azure IoT Hub might be a better choice.

To build, test, and deploy a machine learning solution using existing machine learning algorithms in Azure, you could use the Azure Machine Learning service. This is a fully managed cloud service that enables you to build, train, deploy, and manage machine learning models at scale. It includes a wide range of tools and capabilities for building and deploying machine learning solutions, including pre-built algorithms and models, as well as support for popular machine learning frameworks such as scikit-learn, PyTorch, and TensorFlow.  

Using Azure Machine Learning, you can build machine learning models using a variety of data sources and types, including structured and unstructured data, as well as use a range of data preprocessing and feature engineering techniques to prepare the data for modeling. You can also use the service to train and evaluate your models using a variety of algorithms and techniques, and to deploy your trained models to a variety of target environments, such as Azure VMs, Azure Kubernetes Service, or Azure Functions.  

In addition, Azure Machine Learning includes a range of tools and features for monitoring and managing your machine learning models in production, including support for continuous integration and deployment, as well as tools for model performance monitoring and optimization.

Overall, Azure Machine Learning is a comprehensive solution that can be used to build, test, and deploy machine learning solutions using existing algorithms and models, and is well-suited for projects that require the ability to scale and manage machine learning models at enterprise-level.  

One of the most frequently posed Azure interview questions, be ready for it.  

To manage, scale, and orchestrate the deployment of a container-based application in Azure, you could suggest using the Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS). This is a fully managed service that enables you to deploy and manage containerized applications on Azure. It includes a range of tools and capabilities for building and deploying container-based applications, including support for popular container orchestration platforms such as Docker and Kubernetes.  

Using AKS, you can deploy containerized applications to a managed Kubernetes cluster on Azure and use the Kubernetes platform to manage and scale the applications. This includes features such as automatic scaling, rolling updates, and self-healing capabilities, which can help to ensure that the applications are highly available and performant.  

In addition, AKS includes a range of tools and features for monitoring and managing the deployment of containerized applications, including support for continuous integration and deployment, as well as tools for monitoring and optimizing application performance. 

Overall, AKS is a comprehensive solution that can be used to manage, scale, and orchestrate the deployment of container-based applications in Azure, and is well-suited for projects that require the ability to deploy and manage applications at scale using containerization.

To organize Azure policies into a group and make it easier to manage them, you can use Azure Policy Initiatives. This is a feature of Azure Policy that enables you to group multiple policies together into a single unit, called an initiative, and apply the policies in a coordinated manner.

Using Azure Policy Initiatives, you can define a set of policies that are related to a specific goal or objective, and then apply the policies to a defined scope, such as a subscription or resource group. You can also use initiatives to specify the order in which policies should be applied, and to specify any dependencies or exceptions that may be needed.

In addition, Azure Policy Initiatives includes a range of tools and features for managing and monitoring the policies within the initiative, including the ability to view the status of the policies, as well as to track the compliance of resources with the policies.

Overall, Azure Policy Initiatives is a useful tool for organizing and managing Azure policies and can help to ensure that the policies are applied consistently and effectively across your Azure environment.

To host the different parts of a web application in Azure, you could suggest using Azure App Service. This is a fully managed platform-as-a-service (PaaS) that enables you to build, deploy, and scale web, mobile, and API applications. It includes support for multiple programming languages, frameworks, and deployment options, and can be used to host both web applications and APIs.  

Using Azure App Service, you can host the different parts of your web application, such as the front-end, back-end, and any APIs or microservices, in a single service. This can simplify the deployment and management of the application and make it easier to scale and update the application as needed.  

Azure App Service includes a range of tools and features for building and deploying web applications, including support for continuous integration and deployment, as well as tools for monitoring and optimizing application performance.  

Azure App Service is a comprehensive solution that can be used to host the different parts of a web application and is well-suited for projects that require a fully managed platform-as-a-service with support for multiple programming languages and frameworks.  

As a proactive Azure administrator, you can use Azure Resource Manager templates to deploy repeatable resources to Azure in the most efficient way. Resource Manager templates are JSON or XML files that define the infrastructure and configuration of Azure resources, such as virtual machines, storage accounts, and networking components.  

Using Resource Manager templates, you can define the configuration of your resources in a reusable and declarative manner, and then use the templates to deploy the resources to Azure in a consistent and automated way. This can help to ensure that your resources are deployed consistently and predictably and can save time and effort by eliminating the need to manually configure resources individually.  

Resource Manager templates include a range of features and capabilities for managing and deploying resources, including support for parameterization, variables, and dependencies, which can help to make the templates more flexible and adaptable.  

Resource Manager templates are a powerful and efficient tool for deploying repeatable resources to Azure and can help to streamline the process of deploying and managing resources in your Azure environment. 

Description

How to Prepare for Azure Interview Questions?

Preparing for cloud computing, and especially Azure interview questions and answers is a tedious task. Azure resources are scattered on the internet and are very difficult to structure and comprehend for proper interview preparation. Knowledgehut provides the one-stop solution to Azure courses and interview questions asked by top companies. Technical leads and architects have prepared these Azure basic interview questions. One of the best ways to prepare for Azure interview questions is by preparing for the Azure certifications. Azure Fundamentals is a good start if you haven’t started your preparation journey.  

Job Roles

Here are the top Job roles in the market:

  1. Azure Administrator 
  2. Azure DB administrator 
  3. Azure APIM Developer 
  4. Platform Engineer - Cloud (Azure) - All levels (Fresher, Intermediate, Senior, Lead) 
  5. Platform Architect - Cloud

Top Companies

Here are the leading companies looking for Azure experts:  

  • Microsoft 
  • Walmart 
  • Flipkart 
  • TCS 
  • Infosys 
  • HCL 
  • Wipro 
  • Tech Mahindra

Azure Basic Interview Questions Tips and Tricks

Along with your strong technical skills, you require a skill to answer tricky yet basic Azure cloud interview questions. One of the lead cloud architects has asked a candidate the following scenario-based non-technical questions:

  • Why did you choose Cloud computing over other technology stacks?  
  • What’s more special about Azure compared to AWS? 
  • If I ask you to provide negative feedback to Azure, what services do you disregard and why? 
  • If you are an experienced Azure Cloud expert, how have you seen the impact of changing the cloud role names to the culture and what is best, in your opinion? Like, Infrastructure engineer, Cloud engineer, DevOps engineer and now it’s Platform Engineer. 

What to Expect in Azure Interview?

The Azure interview questions consist of three categories:  

  1. Concept-based questions: The interviewer will ask various conceptual questions to cover your understanding of the vast Azure landscape. It is always good to set boundaries and tell what you know only. Attempting to unknowns can adversely impact your interview.  
  2. Technical hands-on questions: The interviewer will give you a piece of paper and ask you to draw some Azure infrastructures. He may also ask you to highlight the secure cloud best practices. So be prepared the explaining the challenges you faced during the real-time implementation. It will give more weight to the interview.  
  3. Non-technical Interview questions: The interviewer may check on your ability to handle the issues and interest in the subject. Always show your interest with positive answers to the question.   

Taking Azure fundamental certifications on KnowledgeHut is a great way to get started with building this in-demand skill set. 

Summary

Azure provides a robust set of cloud computing systems designed for small-scale businesses to enterprises with an SLA of 99.99% uptime. It comes with exclusive $300 credits to try the services. As the infrastructure is changing its nature, from manually deploying the application to full infrastructure deployment by automation, Azure supports all. Azure is the heart of the Microsoft toolchain and overgrowing.  

From servers to serverless and data processing to machine learning systems, Azure provides all the necessary tools for an enterprise's application implementation and hosting.  

It's one of the most acquiring skills for Software engineers who want to develop their career journey to the platform engineering space. 

If you want to expose yourself to the world of outstanding deployments and play around with the various deployment options to give life to software applications, Azure is for you. 

In a nutshell, Azure is a high-growth skill to learn in 2023 regarding better career opportunities and pay scale. It is recommended to go for introductory KnowledgeHut’s Cloud Computing courses before jumping on Azure. It will help you to strengthen your knowledge of Cloud Computing concepts. 

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