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Low-Level Design Interview Questions and Answers for 2024

Low-level design (LLD) interviews are a subset of technical interviews in which a candidate's ability to devise creative approaches to difficult technological challenges is evaluated. In an LLD interview, the focus is on the candidate's knowledge of design patterns, data structures and algorithms, as well as the candidate's ability to apply this knowledge to the design of solutions to real-world problems. This article is divided into multiple sections which involves General, Basics, Intermediate, and Advanced questions and it gives you solutions for those questions as well which help you in preparing for the interview. An LLD interview's purpose is to evaluate a candidate's ability to create effective, scalable, and maintainable solutions to difficult technical challenges. In this IQA you will find some good low level design interview questions that help you in attending the interviews. These preparatory questions will make you confident to attend any interview of LLD and land on a job that suits you perfectly.

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Beginner

I can try, for sure! Start with the fundamentals when communicating technical ideas to someone who is unfamiliar with the subject. Introduce more sophisticated notions later. Here are some pointers that could be useful:

  • Use plain and straightforward language: Try to describe the subject using common terms and examples rather than using technical jargon.
  • Divide the idea into manageable chunks: Trying to comprehend a complicated idea all at once might be stressful. It may be simpler to comprehend a topic if it is divided into smaller, easier-to-understand chunks.
  • Use analogies to communicate technical concepts to laypeople. Analogies can be a useful tool in this regard. You could use an analogy to describe how a computer works by comparing it to a factory or how the internet functions by comparing it to a system of roads, for instance.
  • Use visual aids: When discussing technical concepts, diagrams, charts, and other visual aids can be very helpful. They may aid in providing more context and making the idea simpler to comprehend.
  • Be patient; it could take a while for the person to fully get the idea. Be patient and ready to repeat yourself when necessary.

This is a frequently asked question in low-level design questions. Every software tool is built for the purpose of making a software engineer’s life easy and every tool has its own advantages over other. However, I have certain tools that I use the most based on the SDLC stages,  

  • Integrated Development Environments (IDEs): IDEs are computer programs that give software developers access to a wide range of tools. A code editor, a debugger, and a compiler or interpreter are frequently included in them. Xcode, Eclipse, and Visual Studio are a few well-known IDEs.  
  • Version management systems: This is for source code to enable developers to communicate with one another and keep track of changes made to their programs over time. Git, Mercurial, and Subversion are a few of the well-liked version control programs.  
  • Debuggers: Debuggers are tools that assist programmers in identifying and resolving mistakes (sometimes referred to as "bugs") in their code. GDB, LLDB, and the Visual Studio Debugger are a few well-known debuggers.  
  • Profilers: By locating bottlenecks and inefficient sections in the code, profilers are tools that aid developers in improving the performance of their work. Valgrind, gprof, and Visual Studio Profiler are a few well-known profilers.  
  • Testing frameworks: These are instruments that assist programmers in creating and executing automated tests for their programs. JUnit, NUnit, and PyTest are a few examples of well-liked testing frameworks.

Low-level design is the process of figuring out the exact hardware and software parts of a system and how they connect to each other. A few of the most interesting things about low-level design are:

  • The chance to work with new technologies: Low-level design often involves working with the latest hardware and software, which can be very exciting for people who like to know what's going on in their field. 
  • The ability to have a direct effect on how well a system works: The decisions made during low-level design can have a big effect on how well and quickly a system works. This can be very rewarding for people who like the challenge of figuring out how to make systems work better and then seeing the results of their work.

As for the hardest parts of low-level design, some of them might be:

  • Need to know a lot about the system: Low-level design requires knowing a lot about the system being designed, including what hardware and software will be used and how they will work together.
  • The need for clear instructions: To make sure a system works the way it's supposed to, the specifications for its hardware and software must be very clear. This can be hard because you have to plan carefully and pay attention to the details.
  • There could be trade-offs: In low-level design, you often have to choose between goals that are at odds with each other, like maximizing performance and minimizing cost. It can be hard to find a good balance between these different goals.

Overall, low-level design can be a very exciting and difficult process that requires a lot of skill and attention to detail. 

I think a software engineer can benefit from having many different qualities. The most important ones are:  

  • Strong problem-solving skills: Software engineering is often about finding solutions to difficult problems, so it's important to be able to think critically and creatively.  
  • Pay attention to the details: software systems are made up of a lot of small parts that need to work well together. Because of this, it is important in software engineering to pay close attention to details.  
  • Good communication skills: Software engineers often work in groups, and it's important for them to be able to explain ideas and technical concepts in a clear way.  
  • Adaptability: Software engineering is a field that is always changing, with new technologies and ways of doing things coming out all the time. A software engineer needs to be able to deal with change and learn new things.  
  • Strong coding skills: Of course, a software engineer needs to have strong coding skills. This includes being able to write code that is effective, well-structured, and easy to maintain.  
  • Passion for technology: A software engineer's career can move forward if he or she loves technology and wants to keep up with the latest changes in the field.  

These are just a few examples which I think a software engineer might find useful. Every software engineer is different, with their own strengths and areas of focus.

Some things I could do to keep up with changes in my field, like software engineering, are:  

  • Reading magazines and news sources in your field: Keeping up with the latest changes in my field can help me stay relevant and on top of my game.  
  • Attending conferences, workshops, or online courses: This is to learn about new technologies, best practices, and emerging trends.  
  • Making professional connections: Getting in touch with other professionals in my field, either in person or online, can help me keep up with the latest news and share ideas with other people in my field.  
  • Keeping up with online communities: Taking part in online communities, like forums or discussion groups, can be a good way to keep up with the latest news and connect with other people in the field.  
  • Continue to learn and try new things: It's important to keep learning and to stay interested in new technologies and ways of doing things. This could mean working on my own projects or trying out new tools or technologies on my own.

I can keep up with the latest changes in my field and keep getting better as a professional if I stay involved and act. 

A programming language that is object-oriented is one that is based on the concept of "objects," which are data structures that contain both data and procedures. These objects are classified as classes, and the procedures within a class are referred to as methods. The object-oriented programming approach is based on the concept of breaking down a large, complex problem into smaller, more manageable pieces that can be represented as objects. This approach is intended to make large, complex software systems easier to build by allowing developers to focus on individual objects and their relationships rather than having to deal with the entire system at once. Java, C++, and Python are examples of object-oriented programming languages.  

Expect to come across this popular question in low-level design interview questions. There are several principles that are central to object-oriented programming, including encapsulation, abstraction, inheritance, and polymorphism.

  • Encapsulation: This refers to the idea of bundling data and methods that operate on that data within a single unit, or object. Encapsulation is used to limit access to data from other parts of the program, which helps to reduce complexity and increase modularity. This binds the data so that it creates the protective shield for the code inside. 
  • Abstraction: This is the process of exposing only the relevant and essential characteristics and behaviors of an object to the outside world while hiding its implementation details. Abstractions are used to provide a simplified, high-level view of complex systems, making it easier to understand and work with them.
  • Inheritance: This is the ability of a class to inherit the properties and methods of another class, which allows for the creation of a hierarchy of classes. This helps to reduce code duplication and allows developers to reuse code from existing classes when creating new ones. 
  • Polymorphism: This refers to the ability of different objects to respond differently to the same method call, depending on their class. This allows for the creation of flexible, reusable code that can be used in a variety of different contexts. 

Together, these principles form the foundation of object-oriented programming and are used to design and build complex software systems in an organized and structured manner. 

In order to produce high-quality software that is maintainable, scalable, and effective, many principles are followed in software development. Among the most important principles are:  

  • KISS (Keep It Simple, Stupid): This principle recommends that developers keep their code and designs as simple as possible to reduce complexity and improve readability.  
  • DRY (Don't Repeat Yourself): This principle advises developers to avoid duplicating code and other resources to make the system easier to maintain and scale.  
  • YAGNI (You Ain't Gonna Need It): This principle advises developers to only implement features and functionality that are absolutely necessary for the system's current needs, rather than including features that may be used in the future.  
  • SOLID: A set of principles that advises developers on how to design software systems that are easy to maintain and extend. Single Responsibility, Open-Closed, Liskov Substitution, Interface Segregation, and Dependency Inversion are the acronyms for SOLID. 

Agile software development principles emphasize iterative development, rapid prototyping, and the ability to adapt to changing requirements. Agile approaches seek to deliver working software to users as soon as possible while also involving stakeholders in the development process.

Developers can create well-designed, reliable, and easy-to-maintain software systems by adhering to these and other software development principles. 

A variety of modelling tools are commonly used in software development, including:  

  • Flowcharts are diagrams:  This will depict the steps in a process or decision points in a system. They can be used to represent a business process or to model the flow of data and control through a system.  
  • Entity-Relationship Diagrams (ERDs): These are used to represent the relationships between entities in a database. They depict the entities and their relationships, as well as the attributes of each entity.  
  • Use Case Diagrams: These diagrams depict the interactions between a system and the actors with whom it interacts. They can be used to model a system's functionality and to identify the system's requirements.  
  • Class diagrams: Class diagrams depict the structure of a system in terms of the classes that comprise it, the attributes of each class, and the relationships between the classes. They are commonly used to design the structure of a system in object-oriented programming.  
  • Sequence Diagrams: These diagrams depict the interactions of objects or components in a system over time. They can be used to simulate the flow of messages between objects and to understand the sequence of events in a system. 

Developers can gain a better understanding of a system's structure and behavior by using these and other modelling tools, allowing them to design and build software systems more effectively.

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized modelling language for creating visual representations of software systems. It provides a set of symbols and notations for creating diagrams that depict the structure and behavior of a system.

UML is frequently used in software system design and development because it allows developers to create visual models of their systems that can be used to communicate ideas and design concepts to other team members. It is a versatile programming language that can be used to model a variety of systems, including object-oriented systems, database systems, and distributed systems.  

UML can be used to create a variety of diagrams, including class diagrams, sequence diagrams, use case diagrams, and activity diagrams. Each of these diagram types is used to model different aspects of a system and serves a specific purpose.  

Overall, UML is a powerful tool for designing and modelling software systems that is widely used in the software development industry. It assists developers in better understanding the structure and behavior of their systems, as well as communicating design concepts to other team members. 

There are several types of UML diagrams used to model various aspects of a software system. These diagrams are divided into two types: structural diagrams and behavioral diagrams.  

  • Structural diagrams: These diagrams depict the static structure of a system and are used to model the relationships between the system's various components. Class diagrams, object diagrams, and component diagrams are examples of structural diagrams.  
  • Behavioral diagrams: These diagrams depict the dynamic behavior of a system and are used to model the interactions between the system's various components. Sequence diagrams, activity diagrams, and state diagrams are examples of behavioral diagrams.

There are several types of UML diagrams within these two broad categories, each of which serves a specific purpose and is used to model different aspects of a system.

Overall, UML diagrams are a powerful tool for visualizing and understanding a software system's structure and behavior, and they are widely used in the software development industry to design and model complex software systems. 

Low-level design (LLD) is a design phase in software development that comes after the high-level design phase and before the implementation phase. The design of the software system is refined and elaborated in greater detail during the low-level design phase, and the specific components, interfaces, and data structures that will be used to implement the system are identified. 

During the low-level design phase, design patterns can be used to help guide the system's design and ensure that it is well-structured and maintainable. Design patterns provide a set of best practices for solving common design problems and can be used to identify the appropriate system components, interfaces, and data structures.

Several types of design patterns, such as creational patterns, structural patterns, and behavioral patterns, can be used during the low-level design phase. Creational patterns deal with object creation mechanisms, attempting to create objects in a situation-appropriate manner. Structural patterns are concerned with object composition, establishing relationships between objects in order to form larger structures. Behavioral patterns are concerned with object communication, what happens between objects, and how they work together. 

To solve a problem that arises during the low-level design (LLD) phase of software development, you can take the following steps:  

  • Define the problem: The first step is to clearly define the problem that you are attempting to solve. This may entail analyzing the system's requirements and comprehending the context in which the problem is occurring.  
  • Break the problem down: Once you've identified the problem, try to divide it into smaller, more manageable chunks. This can aid in the understanding and resolution of the problem.  
  • Consider the following potential solutions: Consider potential problem solutions next. This could include going over design patterns and other best practices, as well as brainstorming ideas with other team members.  
  • Evaluate the potential solutions: After you've identified some potential solutions, evaluate them to see which one is the best fit. Consider factors such as the solution's complexity, the impact on the rest of the system, and the solution's maintainability.  
  • Implement the solution: Once you've decided on the best solution, put it into action. This may entail modifying an existing design or developing new components. 
  • Test the solution: Once the solution has been implemented, test it to ensure that it is effective and does not introduce any new problems.

Following these steps will allow you to effectively solve problems that arise during the low-level design phase of software development.

Software design principles are a set of rules that are followed when designing and making software systems to make sure they are well-structured, easy to maintain, and work well. These principles help guide the design process and make sure that the system that is made is of high quality.  

Some of the most important rules for making software are:  

  • The Single Responsibility Principle: says that each class or module in a software system should have a single, clear job to do. This helps make sure the system is modular and easy to fix.  
  • Open-Closed Principle: This principle says that software entities (such as classes, modules, and functions) should be open to being added to, but closed to being changed. This means that if you want to add new functionality to an entity, you shouldn't change its internal implementation. Instead, you should extend the entity.  
  • Liskov Substitution Principle: This principle says that objects of a superclass should be able to be replaced with objects of a subclass without affecting the correctness of the program. This helps make sure that the system can be changed and kept up.  
  • Interface Segregation Principle: This principle says that clients shouldn't have to depend on interfaces they don't use. This helps make sure the system is modular and easy to fix.  
  • Dependency Inversion Principle: This says that high-level modules shouldn't depend on low-level modules. Instead, both should depend on abstractions. This helps separate the different parts of the system, which makes it easier to use and keep up.

By using these and other software design principles, developers can make software systems that are well-structured, easy to maintain, and work well. 

It is hard to say which software design principle is the most important because the relative importance of different principles can change based on the context and goals of a software project. Still, the SOLID (Single Responsibility, Open-Closed, Liskov Substitution, Interface Segregation, and Dependency Inversion) principles of object-oriented design (Single Responsibility, Open-Closed, Liskov Substitution, Interface Segregation, and Dependency Inversion) are generally thought to be important rules that should be followed when designing and building software systems.  

People often think that the Single Responsibility Principle is the most important of these. This is because it helps to make sure that a software system is modular and easy to maintain by dividing the system's responsibilities into small, focused classes. Developers can make systems that are easier to understand and change over time if they follow this principle.  

In the end, the most important software design principle will depend on the specific goals and needs of a software project, and the relative importance of different principles may change as the project progresses.

It's no surprise that this one pops up often in low-level system design interview questions. Low-level design (LLD) is the process of making a software system's design more detailed and precise. Having a low-level design for a software system has a number of benefits:  

  • Better understanding of the system: A low-level design helps provide a more detailed understanding of the system, including the specific parts and interfaces that will be used to make it work. This can make it easier to understand how the system works and to spot any problems or issues that might come up.  
  • Better communication with stakeholders: A low-level design can be used to tell other stakeholders, like team members, project managers, and clients, how the system is put together. This can help make sure that everyone knows exactly what the system is and how it will be used.
  • Improved code quality: A well-designed low-level design can help make sure that the code that is written is of high quality because it shows how the system should be built. This can lead to fewer bugs and a codebase that is easier to keep up to date. 
  • Reduced development time: By doing a low-level design first, developers can find and fix design problems before they become a problem, which can save time and effort during the implementation phase. 

Overall, a low-level design can help a software development project in a number of ways. It can help people understand the system better, improve communication with stakeholders, improve the quality of the code, and shorten the time it takes to develop the software. 

Two kinds of UML diagrams used to show how a system works are sequence diagrams and activity diagrams. Both kinds of diagrams are used to show how objects or parts of a system work together and the order in which things happen. But there are some big differences between these two types of diagrams:  

  • Scope: Sequence diagrams are used to show how messages flow between objects in a system. They show how objects interact with each other at a single point in time. On the other hand, activity diagrams are used to show how activities or actions move through a system over time.  
  • Detail: Sequence diagrams are usually more detailed than activity diagrams because they show exactly what messages are sent between objects and in what order. Activity diagrams, on the other hand, tend to be more general and show how activities move through a system as a whole.  
  • Use: Sequence diagrams are often used to show how objects in a system talk to each other in more detail. They are especially useful for showing how messages move between objects. Activity diagrams are used to show how activities or actions move through a system as a whole. They are especially useful for showing how business processes or algorithms work.  

Overall, sequence diagrams and activity diagrams are both used to model how a system works, but they do so in different ways and for different purposes. 

It is hard to say which design pattern is the most popular because the popularity of different patterns can change based on the project and its needs. Having said that, here are some of the most common design patterns used in software development:  

  • Singleton: This is a creational pattern that makes sure a class only has one instance and gives you a way to reach that instance from anywhere.  
  • Factory: This is a creational pattern that lets subclasses change the type of objects that will be created. It provides an interface for creating objects in a super class, but subclasses can change the interface.  
  • Observer: This is a behavior pattern that lets objects sign up to be told when things happen in the system and get updates when these things happen.  
  • Decorator: is a structural pattern that lets you add new behavior to an existing object on the fly without changing how it works.  
  • Builder: This is a creational pattern that lets a builder object be used to make a complex object step by step.

Overall, the most popular design pattern will depend on what a project needs and how it is being used. 

You can make a good low-level design (LLD) plan by following these steps:

  • Define the design's scope: The first step is to define the design's scope, which includes the specific parts and functions that will be included. This will help make sure the design is clear and focused.
  • Find out what the system needs to do: Next, figure out what the system needs and how the design will meet those needs. This will help make sure the design meets the needs of the users and other important people.
  • Break the plan up into smaller parts: Break up the design into smaller parts that are easier to handle. This will make it easier to understand the design and make changes to it.
  • Figure out the connections between the parts: Identify the relationships between the different components of the design, including how they will communicate with each other and how they will interact.
  • Think about design patterns and the best ways to do things: Think about using design patterns and other best practices to make sure the design is well-structured and easy to maintain.
  • Write down the design: Write down the design in detail, including all the parts, how they connect, and how they work together. This will help make sure the design is easy to understand and clear. 

Software system design often entails the following procedures:  

The first step in building any kind of software system is to articulate exactly what issue must be addressed. The process may include asking for input from those with a vested interest in the software's success, doing an analysis of the software's intended audience, and establishing a set of goals.  

Next, a high-level design of the system is prepared, detailing the system's overall structure and components. The system's architecture, its primary components and modules, and the connections between them should all be taken into account in this design.  

After the high-level design is finished, a low-level design is carried out to develop on it further. In order to do this, it may be necessary to define the interfaces, classes, and data structures that will be utilized in the system's implementation, as well as the connections between them.  

After the design is complete, the system is put into action so that it functions as intended. For this purpose, you may need to construct databases, write code, or create other parts of the system.  

The system is put through rigorous testing after it has been implemented to make sure it is performing as intended and satisfying the needs of its end users.  

System deployment occurs when a system has passed testing and is ready to be used by its intended audience.

Multithreading is a way for a central processing unit (CPU) or a single core in a multi-core processor to do more than one thing at the same time. It makes it look like a single processor is running multiple threads of code at the same time by splitting the CPU's processing time between multiple threads.

A design pattern is a way to solve a common problem in software design that can be used over and over again. A design pattern is not a finished design that can be turned directly into code. Instead, it is a description or template of how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations. 

Design patterns are a way for other developers to learn from the knowledge and experience of developers who have been successful. They give a common language and a set of best practices that can be used to solve common design problems in an efficient and elegant way.

Good coding practices are a set of rules that developers can follow to make sure that their code is high quality, easy to understand, and easy to fix. Here are some examples of good ways to code:  

  • Follow a consistent style of coding: Set up and use the same style of coding throughout your codebase. This can make the code easier to read and understand and help make sure it is consistent and easy to maintain.  
  • Use names that are clear and meaningful: Give your variables, functions, and other parts of your code names that are clear and meaningful. This can help make the code easier to understand and more self-explanatory. 
  • Write self-documenting code: Even if you are the only one who will read it, try to write code that is clear and easy to understand. Use comments sparingly but be sure to use them when you need to give context or explain parts of the code that are hard to understand.  
  • Test your code: You should test your code carefully to make sure it works right and meets the needs of the project. This can help find bugs early and fix them, and it can also help make sure the code is good.  
  • Refactor your code: Look over it every so often and see if there are ways to improve how it is structured and put together. This could mean refactoring the code to make it more modular, easier to understand, or easier to maintain.

Developers can write code that is high quality, easy to understand, and easy to fix if they follow these and other good coding practices. 

Code review is the process of looking over code written by one or more developers to find bugs, make the code better, and make sure it can be kept up to date. Code review is usually done by a group of developers working together. They may look at the code as a group or on their own.

Performing code review has several benefits, such as:

  • Finding bugs: Code review can help find bugs in the code that might not have been found by testing. This can help to make the code better as a whole.
  • Improving the quality of the code: Code review can help improve the quality of the code by giving a second set of eyes to look for places where the code could be improved or refactored.
  • Sharing knowledge: During the review process, developers can learn from each other, which can help team members share knowledge and best practices.
  • Promoting teamwork: Reviewing code can help team members work together and build a stronger team dynamic.

Overall, code review is an important part of developing software because it helps make sure that the code is good, easy to understand, and easy to maintain.

Intermediate

Following these stages is how I approach solving a low-level design (LLD) problem:

  • The first step is to precisely identify the issue that requires fixing. In order to do this, it may be necessary to collect requirements from stakeholders, conduct an analysis of user needs, and define the LLD's overarching objectives.
  • Next, I'd specify the system's needs and how the LLD will meet those needs. To do so, one must examine the system's functional and non-functional requirements and decide how to incorporate them into the design.
  • I'd start by isolating the main issues and working my way down to the smallest details. In order to do this, we need to break down the problem into manageable chunks and determine which parts and interfaces will be required to address each subproblem.
  • The next thing I would do is figure out the connections between the LLD's various parts, such as how they will talk to one another and work together.
  • Think about applying design patterns and other best practices to the LLD to make it well-structured and easy to maintain.
  • Finally, I would document the LLD in full, noting the various parts, their interfaces, and the connections between them. Doing so would aid in making sure the LLD is straightforward and simple to grasp.
  • If I were to follow these guidelines, I could create a low-level design that is both logically sound and easily maintained, and one that would ultimately prove to be an effective answer to the problem at hand

Sure! The process of specifying the structure and behavior of a system or component at a low degree of detail is known as low-level design (LLD). LLD's goal is to present a thorough system design that can be put into use and tested.  

A general procedure for creating an LLD for a software system is provided below:  

  • The first stage is to describe the system's needs: including both functional and non-functional requirements like performance, security, and scalability.  
  • The system should be divided into modules: The system should then be broken down into more manageable, modular parts that may be planned and deployed separately.  
  • Define the interfaces between the modules: To describe how the modules will communicate with one another, the interfaces between the modules need to be defined.  
  • Create the modules: The LLD should specify all design information, such as data structures, algorithms, and any other implementation specifics, for each module. 
  • Examine the layout: A group of developers should examine the LLD to make sure it is comprehensive, accurate, and doable to apply. 
  • Implement and test the design: The last stage is to put the LLD into practice and test it to make sure it complies with the specifications and functions as planned. 

An LLD can be made more sustainable and extensible in a number of ways:

Use a modular design, which separates the system into smaller, more manageable pieces that can be updated or replaced without impacting the rest of the system. Make use of design patterns. Design patterns are reusable, tested solutions to common design challenges that may be incorporated into your system to make it more flexible and easier to maintain.

To make the system more comprehensible and manageable, stick to well-documented, industry-standard data formats and algorithms. Making the design more maintainable and adaptable for future developers requires thorough documenting of the LLD. Make use of a version control system to keep track of design revisions and roll back to earlier iterations with ease. Thorough testing can help ensure a reliable and scalable system architecture. 

Sure! The factory pattern is a design pattern I've used in an LLD. The factory pattern is a creational design pattern that lets subclasses change the type of objects that will be created.  

I used the factory pattern in my LLD because it let me make a system that could be changed and added to. The factory pattern let me set up a common interface for creating objects, but different factory classes could be used to change the type of object that was made. This made it easy to add new kinds of objects to the system without having to change the code that was already there.  

Here's an example of how the factory pattern could be used in an LLD: 

class AnimalFactory: 
def create_animal(self, animal_type): 
if animal_type == "dog": 
return Dog() 
elif animal_type == "cat": 
return Cat() 
else: 
raise ValueError("Invalid animal type") 
class Dog: 
def make_sound(self): 
print("Bark!") 
class Cat: 
def make_sound(self): 
print("Meow!") 
factory = AnimalFactory() 
animal1 = factory.create_animal("dog") 
animal1.make_sound() # Output: Bark! 
animal2 = factory.create_animal("cat") 
animal2.make_sound() # Output: Meow! 

During LLD, there are several ways to break up a complicated problem into smaller, easier-to-handle parts:  

  • Find the core functions: The first step is to figure out what the core functions of the system are, and which modules will be in charge of putting them into action.  
  • Divide and conquer: This means that difficult problems can be broken up into smaller, easier-to-handle parts that can be solved on their own and then put back together to solve the larger problem.  
  • When you use abstraction: you pick out the most important parts of a problem and leave out the less important ones. This can help break down hard problems and make them easier to deal with.  
  • Find common patterns: You can find common patterns and structures in the problem and use them to define the system's modules and interfaces.  
  • Use incremental development: Complex systems can be built in small, manageable pieces at a time. This is called incremental development. 

If you run into a problem in LLD that you can't solve, there are a few things you can do:  

  • Try to find out as much as you can about the problem: This may include information about the error message you're getting, the steps you took before the error, and any code or data that's important.  
  • Look online for an answer: People talk about programming problems and share ways to solve them in many online forums and communities. If you search for the error message or problem you are having, you might find a way to fix it. 
  • Check the documentation: This is for the programming language or library you're using. There may be information in the documentation about common problems and how to fix them.  
  • Think about asking a coworker or a mentor for help: Based on their experience, another developer might be able to come up with a solution.

If you still can't figure out how to solve the problem, you may need to ask the community or a professional service for help. You could post on an online forum or hire a consultant to help you figure out what's wrong. 

A customer asked me to change an LLD that was already in place. First, I got together all the important information, like the original LLD design and specs. Once I had that information, I started to look at it to see if there were any obvious changes that needed to be made. Once I knew what needed to be changed, I made a new LLD design based on what the customer needed. Then, I put the new design through its paces to make sure it met all the customer's needs.

When writing up and making an easy-to-understand LLD, there are a few important things to keep in mind:

  • Use clear, concise language.
  • Set up your paperwork in a way that makes sense.
  • Give examples when you need to.
  • Use diagrams and charts when it makes sense to do so.
  • Use formatting to make your document look nice to look at. 

You can make sure that your LLD is well-documented and easy to understand in a few keyways. One important way is to use diagrams and charts as much as possible to show how the different parts of your system fit together. Using clear, concise language will also help make your documentation easier to understand. Lastly, it's important to keep your documentation up to date so that everyone who needs it has the most accurate information. 

I'll give you two examples of a low-level design I'm especially happy with.  

One, I came up with the design for a secure communication protocol a few years ago. It was my first big cryptography project, and I had to learn a lot about how to make systems that are safe. The protocol uses a new method of encryption that I came up with based on the ideas of group theory. This plan works very well and gives strong guarantees of safety. I also made a custom authentication protocol that can't be hacked by someone in the middle. I am very happy with how the protocol turned out as a whole. It's strong and works well, and it meets all of the security requirements I set. 

Second, I was working on a project for a client about two years ago that involved making a web app using the Laravel framework. The app had to be able to handle a lot of requests, so I had to find a way to make the code as efficient as possible. I ended up making a custom caching system that used Memcached to store data in memory. This meant that the application could handle more requests without having to wait for the database to respond. The result was an application that worked much better than any of the other Laravel applications my team had made. 

In software engineering, flexibility is how well a system can handle changes and adapt to new needs. Complexity is the number of parts that depend on each other, or the amount of work needed to understand and change the system. When making a low-level design (LLD), it's important to think about the trade-off between flexibility and complexity to make sure the design is easy to understand, easy to maintain, and scalable.  

Using modular design is one way to balance the trade-off between flexibility and complexity in an LLD. By breaking the design into smaller, more independent parts, it's easier to change one part without affecting the others. This makes the system more flexible. But this can make the overall design more complicated because there may be more interfaces and dependencies between the modules.  

Design patterns, which are well-known ways to solve common design problems, are another way to make the trade-off work. Design patterns can help reduce complexity by giving a standard way to solve a problem, but they can also make a project less flexible if they are hard to change to fit the needs of a specific project.  

In the end, the specific needs and limits of the project will determine the right balance between flexibility and complexity. It's important to think about the trade-offs carefully and decide which is more important in the given situation. 

A good low-level design interview questions, don't miss this one. There are a few things you can do to make sure your low-level design (LLD) fits with the system's overall architecture:  

  • Understand the high-level design: Before you start the LLD, make sure you fully understand the overall goals, requirements, and constraints of the system's high-level design.  
  • Follow the rules for building that have already been set: When making the LLD, make sure to follow any architectural rules that the system already has. Design patterns, coding standards, and naming conventions may be part of these rules.  
  • Use architectural views: Architectural views, such as the logical view, the process view, and the deployment view, show the architecture of the system from different points of view. Use these views to make sure that the LLD fits in with the rest of the system's architecture.  
  • Talk to the architecture team about the LLD: Before you sign off on the LLD, go over it with the architecture team to make sure it fits in with the system's overall architecture. They can give useful feedback and make sure the LLD fits in with the rest of the system.  
  • Update the high-level design if needed: If the low-level design (LLD) shows any differences or inconsistencies with the high-level design, update the high-level design as needed to make sure the two are in sync.

By following these steps, you can make sure that your LLD fits in with the system's overall architecture and helps meet the project's goals and needs. 

You can find and fix possible problems or conflicts in a low-level design (LLD) in a few different ways:

  • Look over the LLD in detail: Look over the LLD carefully to find any possible problems or conflicts. This could mean looking for things like inconsistencies, requirements that contradict each other, or areas that might be hard to implement.
  • Involve relevant stakeholders: Find the people who might be affected by the possible problems or conflicts and get them involved in solving them. This could include the project team, the architecture team, and any other relevant parties.
  • Look at the effects of the problems: Carefully look at how the possible problems or conflicts will affect the project. This could mean considering things like the amount of time and money needed to fix them, the risks and consequences of not fixing them, and the benefits of fixing them.
  • Identify potential solutions: Think of ways to solve the problems or issues that have been identified. Think about different options and weigh their pros and cons to find the best thing to do.
  • Implement the solution and test it: Once you've found a solution, you should put it into action and test it to make sure it solves the problem or conflict. If the solution doesn't work like you thought it would, go back to step 4 and try again until the problem is fixed.

By following these steps, you can find and fix any potential problems or conflicts in an LLD, making sure that the design is consistent, easy to maintain, and meets the project's needs. 

There are a few things you can do to make sure your low-level design (LLD) works well and is efficient:

  • Set performance goals: Before you start the LLD, you need to set the system's performance goals, such as response time, throughput, and scalability. This will help you design the system with the most important parts of performance in mind.
  • Think about how the design will work: As you design the system, think about how your choices might affect how well it works. This could mean using algorithms and data structures that are known to work well, using as little memory and processing power as possible, and making the system work best in certain hardware or software environments.
  • Use tools to test performance: Use tools for performance testing to measure and evaluate how well the system works as it is being built. These tools can help you find performance problems and bottlenecks so that you can fix the design as needed.
  • Monitor and improve performance in production: Once the system is up and running, it should still be monitored and improved. This could mean using performance monitoring tools to track key performance indicators and making changes to the system as needed to improve performance.

By following these steps, you can make sure that your LLD works well and is efficient, meeting the project's performance goals and giving users a good experience.

Let's say you're working on a project to make a new app for a client. You have been asked to make the LLD for the database design of the app. To work with the rest of your team, you could take these steps:  

  • Communicate the LLD's purpose and scope: Make sure that other team members understand the LLD's purpose and scope, as well as how it fits into the system's overall architecture.  
  • Get the right people involved in the design process: Include other team members in the design process who will be affected by the LLD, like the front-end developers and the testing team. This will help make sure that the LLD meets their needs and addresses any worries they may have.  
  • Tell the team about the LLD: Share the LLD with the rest of the team by writing it down or giving a presentation. Make sure to explain the design choices and defend any trade-offs or decisions that might be controversial.  
  • Ask the team for feedback and ideas: Ask other team members for their thoughts and feedback on the LLD. Think about what they say and make any changes that will make the design better.  

Tell the team about changes and progress: Keep the team up to date on the LLD's progress and status and let them know if there are any changes to the design. 

During low-level design (LLD), you can acquire stakeholder feedback in numerous ways.  

  • Identify: Identify stakeholders, including project team members, the architecture team, and external parties like clients or users.  
  • Design: Design with stakeholders: Early stakeholder involvement is key. This may involve organizing meetings or workshops to discuss the LLD or sharing draught designs for comments.  
  • Stakeholder feedback: Consult LLD stakeholders. Encourage them to give creative suggestions and listen to their concerns.  
  • Assess stakeholder feedback: Evaluate each suggestion's benefits and cons to determine if it can be implemented.  
  • Incorporate comments within the LLD: Document and share team changes. 

Low-level design (LLD) alignment with business goals and objectives can be achieved through several means.

  • Get a firm grasp of the project's business objectives: The project charter, interviews with important players, and an examination of the market and the competitors are all potential steps in this direction.
  • Think about the repercussions your design choices will have on the bottom line: The business ramifications of your design choices should be taken into account throughout the system's development. A design that speeds up development may save money in the long run, while one that improves the system's ability to scale may attract more customers.
  • Integrate the LLD into the core of the company: Verify that the LLD fits in with the project's business strategy. The LLD should provide features and functionality that are appropriate for the business model being used.
  • Discuss the LLD with those who have a stake in it: Make sure the LLD is in line with the project's business goals and objectives by reviewing it with the project manager and the business owner before finishing it.
  • Incorporate necessary changes into the LLD: Maintain the LLD's relevance to the project's current course by revising it as necessary as the project develops and as corporate goals and objectives change. 

Let's say you're hired to create a brand-new mobile app for a company's use. You have developed an LLD in response to the client's initial set of requirements. However, as development continues, the client becomes aware of the need for more functionality.

Consider taking the following actions to accommodate these shifting needs:

  • Take a look at the new norms: Learn how the new rules will affect the LLD by reading through the requirements. Think about how this might affect the system's overarching design and rollout schedule.
  • Find out what needs to be altered in the LLD: Find out what has to be altered in the LLD in order to meet the new standards. This could necessitate the introduction of brand-new parts, or the alteration of preexisting ones.
  • Check the effects of the adjustments: Analyze how the LLD will be affected by the alterations, taking into account potential risks and difficulties. Think about how much effort and what kinds of resources will be needed to implement the changes, as well as any necessary compromises.
  • Changes to the LLD: Modify the LLD as required to meet the new standards. Be sure to keep track of and share this information with the rest of the team as soon as possible.
  • See if the adjustments work: and make sure they do. Validate and test the modifications to make sure they function as expected and do not have unintended consequences for the system as a whole.

By adhering to these procedures, you may easily adjust to shifting conditions and update the LLD as necessary to meet the developing needs of the project. 

You can take a number of measures to make sure your low-level design (LLD) is testable and that you can successfully validate it:  

  • Design for testability: Take testing into account when you create the system. To achieve this, the system may need to be designed in a modular manner, with clear and consistent naming standards, and with the right hooks and interfaces for testing.  
  • Define the test standards: Define the test standards that will be applied to the LLD validation. Performance, dependability, and usability are a few examples of functional and non-functional requirements that may be included.  
  • Make a testing strategy: Create a testing strategy that details the precise tests that will be carried out to confirm the LLD. Unit tests, integration tests, and system tests could be included in this.  
  • Execute the tests: Execute the tests in accordance with the testing strategy. Make careful to record the outcomes of each test as well as any problems or flaws found.  
  • Examine the test outcomes: Examine the test results to see if the LLD satisfies the established test requirements. If any problems or flaws are found, make the necessary changes to the LLD and retest it to make sure it is completely validated.

You can take a number of actions to find and mitigate any security issues in a low-level design (LLD), including:  

  • Recognize the security requirements: Before beginning the LLD, confirm that you are completely aware of the system's security requirements. This could entail examining any applicable security standards or laws and assessing the threats and vulnerabilities the system might encounter.  
  • Think about security when designing: Think about potential security hazards as you develop the system and how to handle them. This may entail applying secure coding standards, design patterns, and security measures like authentication and authorization.  
  • Utilize security testing software: To find potential security holes in the LLD, employ security testing techniques. You can use these tools to find widespread vulnerabilities, including SQL injection and cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks.  
  • With the security team, go over the LLD: Review the LLD with the security team before it is put into its final form to make sure it satisfies the system's security standards and takes care of any concerns that have been pointed out.  
  • Refresh the LLD as necessary: Update the LLD as necessary to address any security risks or vulnerabilities that the LLD identifies. Test the modifications to make sure they effectively reduce the risks that have been identified. 

You can estimate LLD time and resources in numerous ways:  

  • Identify LLD tasks and deliverables: This may require chunking the design process.  
  • Time and resource estimates for each task: Estimate time and resources for each task. Consider the task's complexity, team members' skill levels, and available resources.  
  • Constraints and dependencies or limitations: This may affect LLD time and resources. If the LLD depends on other tasks or resources, this must be considered in the estimate.  
  • Verify estimates: Compare estimates to similar projects or ask team members or specialists for input. Adjust estimations depending on comments.  
  • Update estimations as needed: Update estimates as needed during design. As the project proceeds and additional information is available, estimates may need to be amended to reflect scope or demand changes. 

Let's say you're working on a project to make a new web application for a client. You made an LLD that uses a certain set of technologies and platforms. But halfway through the project, the client decides they want to switch to a different set of technologies and platforms.  

You could take these steps to adjust to these changes:  

  • Look over the new technologies and platforms to see how they differ from what was originally planned. Think about how this might affect the LLD and how long it will take to implement.  
  • Find out what changes need to be made to the LLD so that it can work with the new technologies and platforms. This could mean changing or replacing parts or modules that are already there or adding new ones.  
  • Think about how the changes will affect the LLD, including any risks or problems that might come up. Think about how much time and money it will take to make the changes, as well as any choices that may need to be made.  
  • Change the LLD as needed to work with the new technologies and platforms. Make sure to write down and tell the rest of the team about these changes. Check and make sure the changes work. 
  • Test and verify the changes to make sure they work as planned and don't hurt the rest of the system. 

Advanced

The most important requirements and limits of a system will depend on the project's goals and needs. Some common requirements and limitations that may affect the design of a low-level design (LLD) are:  

  • Performance: The design of the LLD may be affected by performance requirements, such as response time and throughput. For example, the LLD may need to be made with this in mind if the system is expected to handle a lot of requests or complex data processing tasks.  
  • Scalability: Scalability requirements, such as being able to handle a growing number of users or data volumes, could change how the LLD is made. The LLD may need to be built with modularity and flexibility in mind so that it is easy to add new parts or functions as needed.  
  • Security: Requirements about security, like the need to protect sensitive data or stop people from getting in without permission, may affect how the LLD is made. The LLD might need security controls like authentication, authorization, and encryption to protect itself from possible threats and weaknesses.  
  • Integration: Integration requirements, like the need to connect with other systems or platforms, could change how the LLD is made. The LLD might need interfaces and APIs to make it easier for it to talk to other systems. 

The most important parts and modules of a system depend on the project's goals and needs. A low-level design (LLD) may have some of the following common parts and modules:  

  • Data storage: A system's data may be stored and managed by a data storage component or module. This can include both structured and unstructured data, like records and tables, as well as documents and media files.  
  • Data processing: It may be the job of a data processing component or module to process and change data within the system. This could include tasks like changing the data, putting all the data together, and analyzing the data.  
  • User interface: A user interface (UI) module or component might be in charge of giving users a way to interact with the system. This could include things like menus, buttons, and forms.  
  • Business logic: A business logic component or module might oversee putting the system's main functions into action. This could include tasks like making sure the data is correct, following business rules, and managing the workflow.  
  • Integration: It may be the job of an integration component or module to link the system to other systems or platforms. This could mean putting in place interfaces and APIs to make communication and the exchange of data easier. 

A low-level design (LLD) can help a system be scalable and easy to maintain in a number of ways:  

  • Modularity: Making the system modular, with clear separation of concerns and well-defined interfaces between components, can help with scalability and maintenance. This lets new parts or modules be added or taken away as needed without changing how the system works as a whole.  
  • Extensibility: Having well-defined extension points and a clear plan for adding new features or capabilities can help to make a system scalable and easy to maintain. This lets the system change over time without having to be completely changed.  
  • Reusability: Making the system so that it can be used again and again, with parts and modules that can be easily used for different things, can help with scalability and maintenance. This means that the system can be changed to meet new requirements or needs without having to be redesigned a lot.  
  • Testability: Making sure the system can be tested, with clear and consistent testing practices and a strong set of automated tests, can help with scalability and maintenance. This makes it easy to test and fix bugs in the system, which helps keep problems from happening in the future. 

One of the most frequently posed low-level design interview questions for experienced, be ready for it. Depending on the project's goals and needs, there are many possible security risks and holes that a system could have. Some common security risks and weaknesses that a low-level design (LLD) might need to address are:

  • Data breaches: Data breaches happen when sensitive or private information is stolen or looked at by people who shouldn't be able to. To protect data from this risk, the LLD might need security controls like encryption, authentication, and access controls.
  • Malware attacks: Malware attacks can happen when malicious software is put into a system and causes damage or problems. To deal with this risk, the LLD may need security controls like firewalls, antivirus software, and intrusion detection systems.
  • Denial of Service: Denial of service (DoS) attacks happen when a system gets too much traffic and can't handle it, making it unavailable to users. To deal with this risk, the LLD may need security controls like load balancers and rate limits to stop or lessen DoS attacks.
  • Injection attacks: An injection attack happens when malicious code is put into a system through user input or some other way. This lets attackers gain access without permission or do bad things. To deal with this risk, the LLD might need security controls like input validation and sanitization to stop injection attacks.

By taking these and other security risks and holes into account when designing the LLD, you can help protect the system's security and integrity. 

system, such as response time and throughput? 

A low-level design (LLD) can help a system meet its performance goals, such as response time and throughput, in several ways:  

  • Load balancing: Designing the system to use load balancing techniques, like spreading requests across multiple servers or using a reverse proxy, can help improve performance by putting less work on any one server.  
  • Caching: Designing the system to use caching techniques, like storing frequently used data in memory or on a local disc, can help improve performance by reducing the need to get data from a slower storage medium.  
  • Optimization: Using optimization techniques to design the system, like minimizing the number of database queries or reducing the size of data transferred over the network, can help improve performance by reducing the load on key system components.  
  • Monitoring: Designing the system to use monitoring and logging tools, like keeping an eye on the performance of key system parts and keeping track of performance metrics, can help find and fix performance problems or bottlenecks. 

A low-level design (LLD) can help with testing and validating a system in several ways:  

  • Testability: A system can be made easier to test and validate if it is built with clear and consistent testing practices and a strong set of automated tests. This could mean designing the system with testing in mind, like by making sure interfaces to system parts are clear and well-defined or by using design patterns that make testing easier.  
  • Test data: Creating a system that makes it easy to use test data, such as by making it easy to load and change test data or by making it part of the system, can help with testing and validating the system.  
  • Test environment: Designing the system to support the use of test environments, such as by making it easy to set up and configure test environments or by including tools for managing test environments, can help with testing and validating the system.  
  • Test automation: Designing the system to support the use of test automation, such as by making it easy to automate test cases or by including tools for managing test automation, can help with testing and validating the system.

By taking these and other things into account, you can make an LLD that helps test and validate the system. This can help make sure the system works the way it's supposed to and meets the project's needs. 

  • Interfaces and APIs: Including interfaces and APIs, such as RESTful APIs or message-based APIs, can aid with system integration. These interfaces and APIs allow systems to exchange data with other platforms.  
  • Designing the system to assist data integration: such as by allowing easy import or export of data from other systems or by integrating data mapping and transformation tools, can aid with system integration with other systems or platforms.  
  • System integration: This can be supported by designing the system to readily link to other systems or platforms or by introducing tools for managing system-level connections.  
  • Designing the system to allow integration testing: These systems such as by offering a mechanism to readily test and validate integrations with other systems or platforms, can help with system integration.  

You can develop an LLD that facilitates system integration by considering these and other considerations. This can assist the system converse and exchange data with other systems or platforms.

A low-level design (LLD) can help a system change over time in many ways, such as by making it possible to add new features or capabilities:  

  • Extensibility: Making the system "extendable" by giving it well-defined "extension points" and a clear plan for adding new features or functions can help the system change over time. This could mean making the system modular, using design patterns that make it easy to add on, and making sure the interfaces between components are clear and well-defined.  
  • Reusability: Components and modules that can be easily used for different purposes can help the system change over time. This is made possible by designing the system to be reusable. This can make it possible for the system to be changed to meet new needs or requirements without having to be redesigned a lot.  
  • Maintainability: Making sure the system is easy to keep up to date by using clear and consistent coding, documentation, and testing practices can help it change over time. This can make it easier to understand and change the system as needed, which can help the system continue to grow and get better.  
  • Flexibility: Making the system flexible, so it can easily change or adapt to new needs or requirements, can help the system grow and change over time. This could be done by building the system with options for configuration or customization, or by using design patterns that make it easier to be flexible.  

By taking these and other things into account, you can design an LLD that allows the system to change over time and add new features or capabilities. This can help make sure that the system can be changed to meet new needs as they come up.

YAGNI, which stands for "You Ain't Gonna Need It," is a software development principle that tells developers not to add features or functions to a system that won't be used. The idea behind YAGNI is that it's hard to know what a system will need in the future, and adding features or functions that it doesn't need can make it harder to use, riskier, and cost more. Instead, YAGNI says that developers should focus on building only the features that are needed right now and put off building other features until they are actually needed.  

DRY, which stands for "Don't Repeat Yourself," is another software development principle that tells developers not to use the same code or other information more than once in a system. DRY is based on the idea that code or information that is duplicated can make a system harder to maintain and increase the chance of mistakes or inconsistencies. Instead, DRY says that developers should try to make components that can be used more than once and are easy to share and use elsewhere in the system. 

Design patterns are solutions that can be used again and again to solve common design problems that come up when making software. They aren't specific to any one programming language or platform. Instead, they offer a general way to solve common design problems. Design patterns are usually explained with a set of standard terms and a notation that software developers all over the world can understand.  

There are many different kinds of design patterns, and each one solves a different problem or issue with design. Some common design patterns include:  

  • Creational patterns deal with how objects are made, and they try to make things in a way that fits the situation.  
  • Structural patterns deal with how objects are put together, making connections between them to make bigger structures.  
  • Behavior patterns are about how objects talk to each other, what goes on between them, and how they work together.  

The main advantage of design patterns is that they give software developers a common language and set of best practices to use when designing systems. By using design patterns, developers can talk to each other and other people involved in the project better. They can also build systems that are easier to maintain, scale, and change. Design patterns can also help developers avoid common design pitfalls and mistakes and make better design decisions. 

UML, or Unified Modeling Language, is a standard language for software engineering that is used to model things visually. UML gives you a set of graphical notations and elements that you can use to show the design and structure of a system, as well as how the different parts of the system relate to each other and work together.  

UML diagrams are pictures of the elements and notation of UML. There are different kinds of UML diagrams, and each one is meant to show a different part of a system. The following types of UML diagrams can be made:  

  • Structural diagrams show the static structure of a system, including how different parts relate to each other and depend on each other. Examples of structure diagrams include class diagrams, component diagrams, and deployment diagrams.  
  • Behavioral diagrams show how different parts of a system interact and talk to each other. Activity diagrams, sequence diagrams, and state diagrams are all kinds of behavioural diagrams.  
  • Use case diagrams show how a system works and how its users interact with it.  

Software engineers can make models of a system that are easier to understand and explain to others by using UML diagrams. This can help make the design and development process better and make systems that work better and are easier to keep up. 

Design patterns are a popular and well-known way to design software, but not everyone agrees with them. Some of the most common complaints about design patterns are:  

  • They can be used too much or in the wrong way: Some critics say that developers who don't fully understand design patterns can use them too much or in the wrong way. In these situations, design patterns may be used to solve problems they weren't made to solve, which can lead to solutions that are too complicated or rigid.  
  • They may not be specific enough: Some critics say that design patterns are too general to be useful in all situations, and that they may not give enough direction or context to be used effectively in certain situations. In these situations, developers may need to use design patterns along with other ways of making designs.  
  • They can be hard to understand: Some critics say that design patterns can be too hard for some developers, especially those who are new to software design, to understand or use. In these situations, developers may need more training or help to use design patterns effectively.  
  • They can be hard to change: Some critics say that design patterns can be hard to change and may not adapt well to new needs or requirements. In these situations, developers may have to change or add to the way design patterns are used to meet the needs of the project.  

Overall, design patterns can be a useful tool for designing software, but developers need to know how to use them right and think about the needs and circumstances of their projects when deciding whether and how to use them. 

There are several ways to stop reflection, serialization, and cloning from making a singleton pattern vulnerable:

  • Reflection: To keep a singleton pattern from being broken through reflection, you can use the java.lang.reflect.Constructor.setAccessible method to make the function Object() { [native code] } of the singleton class private and inaccessible. This will stop reflection from being used to make new singleton class instances.
    Also, enums are utilized because intrinsic Java checks make sure an enum value is only ever instantiated once. Java Enums can be used for singletons because they are globally accessible. It's one limitation is that it is rigid and does not support lazy initialization. 
  • Serialization: To keep a singleton pattern from being broken through serialization, implement the java.io.Serializable interface in the singleton class and add a readResolve method that returns the singleton instance. This will make sure that the singleton instance is returned instead of a new instance being made when deserialization is done.
  • Cloning: To keep cloning from breaking a singleton pattern, you can replace the clone method in the singleton class and throw a CloneNotSupportedException. This will stop clones from being made of the singleton instance.
  • By taking these steps, you can help make sure that reflection, serialization, or cloning can't be used to break the singleton pattern. 

There are a few key parts and things to think about when making a web crawler system or a search engine:  

The web crawler part of the system will be in charge of getting information from the web, such as HTML pages, images, and other types of content. This part will need to be able to store and process a lot of data as it is collected. It will also need to be able to handle a large amount of data.  

  • Indexing: The search engine part of the system will be in charge of indexing the collected data. This will create a searchable index that can be used to quickly find relevant results for user queries. This part will need to be able to store and process the index quickly and handle a large amount of data.  
  • Search: It will be up to the search part of the system to handle user requests and give them relevant search results. This part will need to be able to search the index quickly and put results in order based on how relevant they are and other factors.  
  • User interface: The system will also need a way for people to enter search terms and see the results. This part will need to be easy to understand and use.  
  • Scalability and performance: The system will need to be able to handle a lot of data and a lot of user queries, so it will need to be able to grow and work well. This could mean using load balancing, caching, and other methods to make the system run better.

By taking these and other things into account, you can make a web crawler system or search engine that collects, indexes, and searches web content quickly and gives users relevant search results. 

"Before I can make a safe and effective traffic light system, I need to know how many cars and people are in the area. To do this, I look at traffic footage, which also helps me make a list of traffic flow needs, such as how long each light cycle should be and when pedestrians should be able to cross. I also look at how long it takes for a group of cars to get through an intersection completely. This helps me figure out how long to set the timer for before switching to a new signal.  

When I program a light, I first put in the right traffic signals that respond to feedback from trigger points. Then, I set a timer so that the light changes every 20 to 30 seconds, depending on how big the intersection is and how long it takes a car to cross it. Before putting in a traffic light system at an intersection, I make sure to choose a spot that gives pedestrians enough space to cross the street and gives drivers a clear view of the system." 

To make a traffic control system, you need to think about and take into account the following:  

  • Traffic sensors: The traffic control system will need to be able to collect information about the flow of traffic, the speeds of vehicles, and where they are. Traffic sensors, like cameras, radar, or loop detectors, can be set up at different points along the road network to do this.  
  • Traffic control devices: To manage the flow of traffic, the traffic control system will need to be able to control things like traffic lights, road signs, and variable message signs. This could mean using sensors to find out what's going on with the traffic and changing how and when the control devices work based on what they find.  
  • Central control: The traffic control system will need a part that is in charge of gathering and analysing data from the traffic sensors and controlling the traffic control devices. This part is called the central control. This part could be a computer or some other kind of system that can process data and decide what to do based on that data.  
  • Communication: The traffic control system will need to be able to talk to the traffic sensors and control devices, as well as other systems and stakeholders. This could be done with Ethernet, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, or other wired or wireless communication technologies.
  • User interface: The traffic control system will also need a user interface that lets operators see how the traffic is moving and control the traffic control devices as needed. This part will need to be easy to understand and use. 

When using low-level design to make a Snakes and Ladders game, there are a few key parts and things to think about:  

  • Board: The game board will be a grid of squares, and each square will be a possible place for a player's game piece. There will also be snakes and ladders on the board, which will let players move their game pieces to different spots.  
  • Pieces of the game: Each player will have a piece of the game, which will be represented on the board by a marker or token. The game pieces will move based on how the dice are rolled.  
  • Dice: The game will come with dice, which will be used to decide how far each player's piece moves on their turn. The dice will have six sides, and each side will show a different number from 1 to 6.  
  • Rules: The game will have a set of rules that explain how to play, such as how to roll the dice, move the game pieces, and use the snakes and ladders.  
  • User interface: The game will also have a user interface that lets players do things like move their game pieces, roll the dice, and look at the game board. The user interface could be a physical board game or a digital version that can be played on a computer or a mobile device.   
By taking these and other things into account, you can make a game of snakes and ladders that is fun, easy to play, and has clear rules.
 
START
 
Initialize game board
 
Initialize game pieces for each player
 
Initialize dice
 
Set current player to player 1
 
LOOP
 
Roll dice
 
Move current player's game piece according to dice roll
 
Check if game piece has landed on a snake or ladder
 
If yes, move game piece to new position
 
Check if game piece has reached the end of the board
 
If yes, declare current player the winner and exit loop
 
Switch current player
 
END LOOP 

This flow diagram shows the basic steps involved in playing a snake and ladder game, including initializing the game board and components, rolling the dice, moving the game pieces, and checking for snakes and ladders. The loop structure represents the continuous play of the game, with each iteration representing a single turn for a player. The flow diagram ends when a player reaches the end of the board, at which point the game is declared over and the current player is declared the winner. 

To make data structures and algorithms for an in-memory file system, there are a few important things to keep in mind:  

  • Structure of the files: The file system will need to store and organize files and directories in a way that makes them easy to find and use. A hierarchical tree structure is one type of data structure that could be used for this purpose. In this structure, directories are shown as nodes and files are shown as leaf nodes.  
  • Metadata about files: The file system will need to store information about each file, like its name, size, and date of creation. This information can be kept in a separate data structure, like a hash table or dictionary, that links file names to records of metadata.  
  • File contents: The file system will have to store each file's actual contents. A dynamic array or a linked list, which can be used to store the contents of the file in a single block of memory, could be used for this.  
  • File access: The file system will need to let you do things like read and write to files, create and delete files, and move up and down the file hierarchy. Several algorithms can be used to do these things, such as tree traversal algorithms to move through the file hierarchy and I/O algorithms to read and write to files. 

Algorithm: 

START 
Define file hierarchy data structure 
Define file metadata data structure 
Define file contents data structure 
Define file access operations 
Read operation 
Write operation 
Create operation 
Delete operation 
Navigate operation 
Implement file access algorithms using defined data structures and operations 
END 

This Algorithm shows the basic steps for making data structures and algorithms for a file system that works in memory. The first step is to define the data structures that will be used to store the file hierarchy, metadata, and content. The next step is to define the file access operations that the file system will support, like reading and writing to files, making, and deleting files, and so on. Lastly, the file access algorithms can be put into place using the data structures and operations that have already been defined. 

To make a global app for sharing and storing files, there are a few key parts and things to think about:  

  • User accounts: The app will need to let users create and manage their own accounts so they can sign up and sign in to get to their files. This could mean putting in place authentication and permission systems, like hashing passwords and two-factor authentication.  
  • File storage: The app will need to store and manage user files, both the metadata about the files and the files themselves. This could mean using a distributed storage system, like a distributed file system or object storage, to store the files on multiple servers.  
  • File sharing: The app will need to let users share files with each other, either by letting them see the contents of the files or by letting them download copies of the files. This could mean putting in place ways to share, like link sharing or access control lists, to control who can access the shared files.  
  • User interface: The app will need a user interface that lets people do things like upload and download files, create and manage user accounts, and share files with other people. The user interface can be a web interface or a native app for a specific platform, like iOS or Android.  
  • Performance and scalability: The app will need to be able to store and transfer a lot of files and handle a lot of users. This could mean putting in place performance and scalability techniques like load balancing and caching to make sure the app can keep up with the demand. 

Algorithm: 

START 
Define user accounts data structure 
Define file storage system 
Define file sharing mechanisms 
Implement user interface 
Web-based interface 
Native app for specific platform 
Implement performance and scalability techniques 
END 

This Algorithm shows the main steps that go into making an app for sharing and storing files globally. The first step is to decide on the data structure that will be used to store and manage user accounts. The next step is to decide on the file storage system that will be used to store the actual files and file metadata. Then, the ways to share files can be set up, and finally, the user interface can be made. Lastly, performance and scalability techniques can be used to make sure the app can handle a large number of users and a large number of file transfers and storage. 

To make an e-commerce site that uses microservices to handle transactions, there are a few important parts and things to think about:  

  • Product catalogue: The e-commerce site will need to store and manage a list of all the things that can be bought. This could mean putting in place a microservice that manages the product catalogue by adding and removing products, updating product details, and getting information about products.  
  • Shopping cart: The e-commerce website will need to be able to create and manage shopping carts. This means that users will be able to add and remove items from their carts and see what's in them. This could mean putting in place a microservice that manages the shopping carts, including adding and removing items, updating the cart's contents, and figuring out how much the cart's items cost in total.  
  • Order management: The e-commerce website will need to be able to process payments, figure out shipping costs, and let customers know where their orders are in the process. This could mean putting in place a microservice that handles orders, such as making and changing orders, processing payments, and talking to fulfilment partners.  
  • User accounts: The e-commerce website will need to be able to create and manage user accounts, so people can sign up and sign in to see their orders and account information. This could mean putting in place a microservice that handles user accounts, including authentication and authorization, as well as storing and retrieving account information.  
  • User interface: The e-commerce website will need a user interface that lets people look at and buy products, create and manage shopping carts and orders, and get to their account information. The user interface can be a web interface or a native app for a specific platform, like iOS or Android. 

Algorithm: 

START 
Define product catalog microservice 
Define shopping cart microservice 
Define order management microservice 
Define user accounts microservice 
Implement user interface 
Web-based interface 
Native app for specific platform 
Implement performance and scalability techniques 
END 

This algorithm shows the basic steps for making an e-commerce website that uses microservices to handle transactions. The first step is to define the microservices that will be in charge of managing the product catalogue, shopping carts, orders, and user accounts. After that, the user interface can be set up, and then performance and scalability techniques can be put in place to make sure the website can handle a lot of traffic and transactions. 

When making a URL shortening service, there are a few important parts and things to think about:  

  • URL database: The service that shortens URLs will need to keep a list of the original URLs and the shortened versions of those URLs. This could mean putting in place a data structure, like a hash table or dictionary, that maps long URLs to short ones.  
  • Shortened URLs: The URL shortening service will need to create unique shortened URLs that can be used to send users back to the original URL. This could mean putting in place an algorithm that creates unique IDs or strings that can be used as shortened URLs.  
  • URL redirection: The service that shortens URLs will need to let users go from the shortened URL to the original URL. This could mean putting in place a mechanism for redirection, like a server-side redirect or a client-side redirect using JavaScript.  
  • URL statistics: The URL shortening service may also be able to keep track of statistics for shortened URLs, like the number of clicks, the website that sent the user there, and where the user is located. This could mean putting in place a system for storing data, like a database, to hold the statistics data.  
  • User interface: The URL shortening service will need a user interface that lets people enter original URLs, make shortened URLs, and see statistics about shortened URLs. The user interface can be a web interface or a native app for a specific platform, like iOS or Android. 

Algorithm: 

  1. Accept a long URL as input. 
  2. Check if the service has already shortened the URL before by searching the database for an entry with a matching original URL. 
  3. If an entry is found, retrieve the short identifier and skip to step 6. 
  4. If no entry is found, generate a short, unique identifier for the URL. 
  5. Initialize a counter to 1. 
  6. Check if the counter has been used as a short identifier before by searching the database for an entry with a matching short identifier. 
  7. If the counter has not been used, store the long URL and the counter as a short identifier in the database and return the short URL (consisting of the service's domain and the counter) to the user. 
  8. If the counter has been used, increment the counter by 1 and go back to step b. 
  9. Return the short URL to the user. 
  10. When a user visits the short URL, search the database for an entry with a matching short identifier. 
  11. If an entry is found, retrieve the original URL. 
  12. Redirect the user's browser to the original URL. 

Keep a large list of words and phrases in a database or cache (such as a distributed cache like Memcached or Redis). This set of data should have the most common words and phrases that people search for.  

Send a request to the server with the current search query when a user starts to type a search query.  

Get the current search query from the server and use it to look for words and phrases that start with the same letters in the database or cache.  

Send the user's browser a list of words and phrases that match the search.  

Below the search field in the user's browser, show a list of the matching words and phrases.  

As the user types, update the search query and send another request to the server to get updated suggestions.  

A few more things may need to be thought about if this design is to be used by millions of people:  

  • For the server infrastructure to be able to handle the large number of search queries, horizontal scaling should be built in. This could be done by spreading requests across multiple servers with a load balancer or by running a distributed cache on a group of servers.  
  • So that the server doesn't have to work as hard, the database or cache should be set up for quick lookups. This could mean using an in-memory cache like Memcached or Redis, or it could mean using a database with indexing and sharding strategies that are optimised for fast search queries.  
  • Caching on the client side could help to reduce the load on the server even more. This could be done by storing recently searched words and phrases in the user's browser and showing them as suggestions without making a request to the server. 

Here is some example code that shows how the autocomplete feature could work on the server side:

function getSuggestions(query):
 
// Search the database or cache for words and phrases that begin with the same letters as the query.
 
results = search(query) 
 
// Return the list of matching words and phrases.
 
return results
 
On the client side, the feature could be implemented using JavaScript and an HTML form element:
 
// Listen for changes to the search field.
 
document.getElementById("search").addEventListener("input", function() {
 
// Get the current search query.
 
query = this.value
 
// Send a request to the server with the search query.
 
fetch("/suggestions?q=" + query)
 
.then(function(response) {
 
// When the server responds, display the list of suggestions.
 
response.json().then(function(suggestions) {
 
displaySuggestions(suggestions)
 
})
 
})
 
})
 
function displaySuggestions(suggestions) {
 
// Clear the list of suggestions.
 
document.getElementById("suggestions").innerHTML = ""
 
// For each suggestion, create a list item and append it to the list of suggestions.
 
for (suggestion of suggestions) {
 
li = document.createElement("li")
 
li.textContent = suggestion
 
document.getElementById("suggestions").appendChild(li)
 
}
 
} 

Description

Top Low-Level Design Interview Tips and Tricks

Here are some tips and tricks for low-level design interview preparation: 

  1. Carefully examine the job description as well as the qualifications in order to have an understanding of the abilities and experiences that the employer is seeking.  
  2. Get some practice articulating in a straightforward and short manner intricate technical concepts and designs.  
  3. Gain an understanding of the trade-offs and factors to consider while making a variety of design decisions.  
  4. Be knowledgeable about prevalent design patterns and the use cases associated with them.  
  5. Have the ability to recognize and evaluate the needs and constraints of a particular problem, as well as the ability to devise a solution that is compatible with those criteria and constraints.  
  6. Having the ability to segment a problem into smaller, more manageable chunks and then come up with a solution for each individual chunk is essential.  
  7. Have the ability to evaluate and contrast a variety of various design options, as well as to describe the benefits and drawbacks of each.  
  8. A solid understanding of data structures and algorithms, as well as the ability to put this information to use in the construction of solutions for a variety of issues, is required.  
  9. Have the capacity to foresee possible problems with scalability and performance in your design and find solutions to such problems.  
  10. Bring some examples of your previous design work with you and be ready to discuss the thought process and trade-offs that went into creating those designs. 

How to Prepare for Low-level Design Interview Questions?

In order to get yourself ready for a low-level design interview, you can perform the following steps:  

  1. Carefully examine the job description as well as the qualifications in order to have an understanding of the abilities and experiences that the employer is seeking.  
  2. Get some practice articulating in a straightforward and short manner intricate technical concepts and designs. During the interview, this can help you explain your thoughts more clearly to the interviewer.  
  3. Gain an understanding of the trade-offs and factors to consider while making a variety of design decisions. This will assist you in making informed selections and justifying the choices you make regarding the design.  
  4. Be knowledgeable about prevalent design patterns and the use cases associated with them. Because of this, you will be able to apply relevant patterns to numerous design challenges and find solutions.  
  5. Review and practice finding solutions to challenges that require devising a solution for each individual component of a larger issue by first breaking the issue down into smaller, more manageable components.  
  6. Review and exercise the skills of analyzing and contrasting a variety of alternative design options, as well as explaining the benefits and drawbacks of each.  
  7. Review what you already know about data structures and algorithms, and then get some practice applying what you've learned to the process of designing solutions for a variety of situations.  
  8. Prepare for probable problems with scalability and performance in your design and practice finding solutions to those problems.  
  9. Collect some examples of your prior design work and give yourself some experience going through the cognitive process and trade-offs involved in those designs using the examples you gathered. 

Do some research on the organization and any products or services they offer, and make an effort to comprehend any potential design obstacles they may encounter. This will assist you in customizing your responses to meet the particular requirements of the firm. To understand more about High-Level design and Low-Level design interview questions, one must know the concepts of Data Structure and Algorithms

Job Roles

Low-level design (LLD) is a technical discipline that involves designing solutions to complex technical problems. Professionals who specialize in LLD may work in a variety of job roles, including:  

  • Software Engineer  
  • Systems architect 
  • Manager of technical affairs 
  • Manager of Software Development 
  • Manager of technical projects 
  • Solutions Architect 
  • Data Engineer 
  • Network Engineer 

Top Companies

Low-level design (LLD) is a technical discipline that is applicable to a wide range of industries and companies. Some top companies that may have job openings for professionals with LLD skills include: 

  1. Microsoft 
  2. Amazon 
  3. Google 
  4. Apple 
  5. Facebook 
  6. IBM 
  7. Intel 
  8. Cisco 
  9. Oracle 
  10. HP 

Additional advice regarding how to get ready for a low-level design interview questions and answers is as follows:  

  1. Examine the most often asked technical interview questions and get some practice responding to them. Questions pertaining to data structures, algorithms, design patterns, and software architecture could fall into this category.  
  2. Exercise your ability to create solutions to a variety of challenges, and be ready to discuss both the thought process that went into your designs and the trade-offs that were necessary.  
  3. Review and get some practice explaining both the benefits and drawbacks of the various design options. This will assist you in evaluating and contrasting a variety of ways, allowing you to select the most appropriate remedy for a specific issue.  
  4. Be ready to talk about the past design work you've done and the problems you faced in doing so. Your thought process and the way you tackle design challenges will be easier for the interviewer to understand as a result of this.  
  5. Do some research on the organization and any products or services they offer, and make an effort to comprehend any potential design obstacles they may encounter. This will assist you in customizing your responses to meet the particular requirements of the firm.  
  6. Exercise your ability to communicate and give presentations. In order to be successful in a low-level design interview, you will need to be able to describe complicated technical concepts and designs in a clear and simple manner to audiences that are not technically oriented. 

What to Expect in a Low-Level Design Interview Questions?

During a low-level design interview, also known as an LLD interview, you can anticipate that the interviewer will evaluate your capacity to develop solutions to difficult technical issues. It's possible that the interviewer will ask you to conceptualize a solution to a particular issue, or they might ask you to analyze low-level design questions and contrast a few distinct design options.  

The following is a list of examples of the kinds of questions that might be asked of you during an interview for an LLD position:  

  • Create a solution to a particular problem: The person conducting the interview may provide you with a problem and then ask you to create a solution to the problem. This may involve selecting the proper data structures and algorithms, recognizing and addressing any potential scalability and performance difficulties, and providing an explanation of the trade-offs involved in your design.  
  • Assess and compare the various design options that have been presented to you: the interviewer may give you an issue and then ask you to evaluate and compare the various design options that have been given to you. It's possible that you'll be asked to evaluate the various strategies, weigh the benefits and drawbacks of each one, and decide which one offers the optimal answer.  
  • Describe some of the prior designs you've worked on: The person conducting the interview can ask you to give a description of a previous design project you worked on, as well as to walk them through the thought process and trade-offs involved in your design. 
  • Talk about the way you approach design: The person conducting the interview can ask you about the way you approach design and how you go about finding solutions to design problems.  
  • Talk about your familiarity with data structures, algorithms, and design patterns: The interviewer may ask you about the various data structures, algorithms, and design patterns that you are familiar with, as well as how you use this familiarity to the creation of solutions. 

You are All Set! Summary

In conclusion, we'd want to inform you of one IT-related hack to keep in mind the next time you're the interviewee or the interviewer. First and foremost, one must have solid programming skills. We are here to help you in Low-level design interview preparation. The best way to get started is through Programming short courses. Learning new things and putting them into practice will become second nature once you master programming. Always remember that there will be challenging questions based on real-world instances when attending an interview pertaining to LLD and attempting to low-level system design questions. There is no right or wrong answer to those queries. You can give answers to them depending on your point of view. Keep in mind that any problem can have hundreds of answers. Knowledgeable options are always available. Using the aforementioned questions, we hope you do well in your interview. 

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