Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Software testing is a procedure that happens throughout the software development life cycle to make sure the program is accurate and satisfies the requirements. The most crucial phase in every software development project is testing. Testing is essential to the development of any software product in the contemporary world. Software development needs manual testing interviews because they can be utilised when automated testing is not feasible. Therefore, there is still a significant need for people with manual testing skills. You can learn more about software testing by reading this post about manual testing interview questions for freshers as well as manual testing interview questions for experienced. Manual testing questions are one of the essential techniques since it may identify both obvious and subtle software flaws. A fault is defined as the discrepancy between the expected output and the software's output. After the developer repaired the flaws, the tester received the product to retest. Before any freshly produced software is subjected to automated testing, manual testing interview questions and answers are required. The test engineer may test the application from the end user's standpoint and become more familiar with the product if they conduct manual testing. This allows them to design accurate test cases for the application and provide timely feedback on it. Learn software testing from basics to advanced level with the help of Software Testing course.

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Beginner

Software testing is the process of evaluating a software program's functionality. Before the software is accepted and made live, this process verifies that the software is flawless and that the application's result fulfills the desired expectations.
 
The final application development phase is software testing, during which software testers assess code by challenging it. Software testing finds faults and problems early in development, allowing them to be repaired before the product is released. This strategy guarantees that consumers only receive high-quality goods, which boosts consumer happiness and trust.

  • When the test case is completed with a specified pass percentage.
  • When the testing budget is exhausted.
  • When the degree of functionality requirements has been reached.
  • When the bug rate falls below a predetermined threshold, stop testing.

Appropriate analytical skills are the most crucial trait for a software tester. These skills make it easier to comprehend the code by segmenting the process of any complex system.

Verification is used to ensure that products are developed as per requirements by using accepted development practices. Validation is a technique used to ensure that the product developed is bug-free and functioning without interruption.

Static testing is the process of reviewing the code and creating documents and requirements before it is performed to detect errors. Finding defects in the early stages of development is the key objective. This method typically makes it simpler to identify the potential causes of failures.

  • No need of any special instruments or high-level expertise,
  • Cost effective.
  • Adjustable, it is suitable in the event that we make some unforeseen changes to the application.
  • Easy observation and judging capabilities, for user-friendly or consumer experience.

A test case is a unique set of instructions or actions that a tester must follow to verify a particular feature of a product's or application's functionality. If the test is unsuccessful, the outcome can be a software flaw that the company can triage.

An organized procedure known as the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) provides the fastest possible production of high-quality, low-cost software. Producing perfect software that meets and obeys all client expectations and needs is considered to be the aim of the SDLC. The SDLC develops and specifies a comprehensive plan with stages, or phases, each of which includes its procedure and outputs. Following the SDLC reduces project risks and costs and speeds up development while increasing production efficiency.

Importance of SDLC:

  • It offers a uniform framework that specifies tasks and outputs.
  • It helps with project estimating, planning, and scheduling.
  • It facilitates project management and control.
  • It makes all parties engaged in the development process more aware of every stage of the life cycle.
  • The rate of development is accelerated.
  • Enhancing client relationships
  • Project hazards are decreased.
  • It lowers production costs overall and project management costs.

It is a common software testing methodology that requires testers to evaluate the product's functionality to the company's needs. The software is examined as a "black box" and validated from the perspective of the end user. 

Steps in Blockbox testing

  • It provides a consistent structure that outlines the activities and results.
  • It aids in project scheduling, planning, and estimation.
  • It makes project control and administration easier.
  • It increases the awareness of each stage of the life cycle among all parties involved. in the development process.
  • Development is happening faster.
  • improving interactions with clients.
  • Project risks are reduced.
  • Overall production costs and project management costs are reduced.

A test plan organizes all possible testing procedures to guarantee a high-quality product. It compiles information from the use case, requirement, and product description documents. Includes the objective of the test, test coverage, checking the framework, environment, purpose of testing, and risk elements

A test plan is a thorough document that lists all of the significant steps involved in a specific testing effort. A testing strategy should include the following: Project scope. In contrast, a test case is simply intended to evaluate a specific scenario. aims, and purposes.

Test coverage is the extent to which your tests cover test requirements, code, various user scenarios, and platforms like browsers or mobile devices. It is a valuable indicator for assessing how well your testing efforts are working. To identify flaws before they affect consumers, test coverage is crucial.

A use case is essentially documented in a test scenario. It defines a possible action a user could do with a website or app, in other words. Additionally, it might describe a circumstance the user might run into when utilising the product.

Yes, you can achieve 100% test coverage. The size of the application, the complexity of the code, and project bandwidth are the main elements that guarantee it. However, it always changes from application to application. More coverage can be achieved with a smaller application.

Unit testing: A software testing technique known as unit testing involves testing individual software units, such as groups of computer program modules, usage procedures, and operating procedures, to see if they are acceptable for use. It is a testing technique whereby the developer himself tests each module to ascertain whether there is a problem. It has a relationship with how well the individual modules perform.
 
Integration testing: The practice of evaluating the interface between two software modules or units is known as integration testing. It focuses on determining whether the interface is correct. Integrity testing is used to identify issues with how integrated units interact with one another. Integration testing is carried out following the unit testing of all the modules.

No, to perform system testing we must follow orderly sequenced testing stages such as unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and acceptance testing.

Intermediate

  • To make sure that the problem is clearly described, we can conduct additional testing.
  • To be sure that the issue doesn't persist with other inputs, we can perform a few more tests.
  • We can add specifics and submit the bug, once we are certain of its all possible existence.

It is impossible because not all possible input combinations can be tested and not every route through the software can be tested.

A test plan can be constructed based on assumptions about a product if the necessary specifications are not available for it. However, we must thoroughly describe each assumption in the test strategy.

In the testing process retesting is used to confirm the fixed defects. While regression testing is used to confirm that some or all modules are working and guarantees that successful test cases are run again

  • Testers need to be good listeners.
  • Capacity to make decisions about when to halt testing.
  • Capacity to perform under pressure.
  • Ability to prioritize which tests to run first.
  • Lack of standard papers needed to understand the application.
  • Utilizing the optimal number of test cases to test the entire application.

The following categories of validation approaches are included in functional testing:

  • unit testing
  • smoking testing
  • UAT sanity testing
  • interface testing
  • integration testing
  • system testing
  • regressive testing

White box testing examines the internal data structures, internal design, code structure, and operation of the software. It is also known as structural testing, transparent box testing, and glass box testing. Statement coverage, branch coverage, and path coverage are its techniques.

Functional testing involves evaluating the "functionality" of the program or application that is being evaluated. It examines how the software under test behaves. Finding out how many users would sign into a programme at once is a nice example of a non-functional test.

Important Distinctions Between Functional and Non-Functional Testing

  • Non-functional factors like performance, usability, reliability, etc. are verified by non-functional testing, each function or feature of the software is verified by functional testing.
  • Non-functional testing is challenging to carry out manually, functional testing can be done so.
  • Non-functional testing is based on client expectations, functional testing is based on customer requirements.
  • Non-functional testing seeks to evaluate the performance of the software, functional testing aims to validate software actions.
  • The login functionality is an example of functional testing, whereas the dashboard should load in two seconds is an example of non-functional testing.

A structured and organized approach to test execution is suggested by the software testing life cycle (STLC). Such as analysis of requirements, planning a test, case development for tests, execution of the test environment setup, and closure of the test cycle, etc.

Regression testing has a subcategory known as sanity testing. Sanity testing is carried out after getting the software build to make sure the introduced code changes are operating as anticipated.

An error is defined as a code blunder. A defect is created when a manual tester finds an error. A bug is a flaw that the development team acknowledges. A created piece of code fails functionally if it falls short of the criteria.  

A bug is a discrepancy between the expected result and the actual result in an application or a module that is discovered by the testing team throughout the testing period.
 
Defects are discovered when an application's functionality does not meet customer expectations. Giving incorrect input could result in a flaw, as could any coding fault.
 
An error might happen as a result of a developer's coding mistakes due to misinterpretation of the requirement or the demand was not expressed correctly. This is known as the problem in code that leads to errors.

  • Unit/component testing: Unit testing seeks to confirm that each one is correct in terms of meeting the requirements and having the required functionality.
  • Integration testing: Integration testing tries to evaluate various system components in combination to determine whether they function properly together.
  • System testing: System testing gives testers the chance to check that the product complies with business requirements and that its working environment doesn't present any problems
  • Acceptance testing: Acceptance testing is done to ascertain whether the system is prepared for release.

The term "severity" refers to a bug's weight or depth.  It indicates which bug should be fixed first in terms of priority. It describes the viewpoint of the user.

A bug's criticality can range from low to high, depending on the situation.

  • Low user interface flaws
  • Medium: level faults at boundaries
  • High calculation errors
  • High Data misinterpretation
  • High Hardware malfunctions

User interface testing, sometimes referred to as UI testing or GUI testing, examines the visual components of the application to confirm that they function as intended and perform as anticipated.

The higher-level modules in this top-down method are evaluated first, followed by the lower-level modules. The modules are then appropriately integrated. Lower-level modules here relate to submodules, while higher-level modules refer to the main module. This method makes use of Stubs, which are mostly used to emulate the invoked submodule; if it is not developed, the Stub serves as a temporary replacement.
 
The lower-level modules in this Bottom Up technique are tested first, followed by the higher-level modules. The modules are then appropriately integrated. Higher-level modules here relate to core modules, whereas lower-level modules refer to submodules. This method makes use of test drivers, which are primarily employed to initiate and pass necessary data from upper-level modules to lower-level modules as necessary.

The percentage of testing that has been done for a product is indicated by the quality indicator known as test coverage. Both functional and non-functional testing operations can benefit from it. To fill in for missing test cases, this metric is employed.

Defect Removal Efficiency is the capacity to eliminate flaws that a project introduces into a system throughout the project life cycle. DRE = (total flaws discovered during the project/total defects introduced by the project) x 100.

Advanced

A type of software testing called API TESTING verifies application programming interfaces (APIs). The purpose of API testing is to test the programming interfaces' usability,  performance, dependability, and security. In API testing, you use software to make calls to the API, retrieve output, and record the system's response rather than the typical user inputs (keyboard) and outputs.

The date that the defect was last rectified or if it has not yet been fixed and is still open, the time required to rectify it. This defect age is often calculated in days or hours.

  • Improved Results
  • Swifter feedback system
  • Brand enhancement
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Efficiency Testing
  • Expanded Coverage
  • Detailed Testing
  • Reusability

Automated testing is performed using the following steps such as

  • selecting the test cases you want to automate
  • choose an appropriate automated testing tool
  • spread out Your automated testing work
  • produce high-quality test data, conduct automated tests that can withstand UI changes

A silk test tool is created to test an application's functioning and for regression. When we test Windows-based, Java, web, and classic client/server applications, it is used.  

Additionally, silk test provides test administration, planning, direct database access, and validation. It also includes a built-in recovery system for unattended testing and supports testing across a variety of platforms, browsers, and technologies.

Regression testing is software testing that is used to confirm that any update or modification to software doesn't alter the software's general functionality.

A defect cycle, referred to as a bug life cycle, occurs throughout the defect's existence. As it is governed by the software testing process and also dependent on the tools employed, it differs from organisation to organisation and also from project to project.

  • Clear and univocal.
  • Title, and description
  • Briefly presented information

When a client or end-user finds a bug the testing team can find it. Another term for this is bug leakage, which occurs when a bug is found that was present in a previous build.

When a build is given to the testing team knowing that it contains a flaw, this is referred to as a bug release. The priority and severity of the bug are low. When the consumer requests the application on time, it is completed. The customer is willing to put up with a bug in the program that has already been released as well as the time and money it will take to fix it. The Release Notes given to the client list these problems for potential future improvement.

Exploratory testing is a method of software testing in which testers gain knowledge of both the test design and test execution at the same time. To put it another way, it's a hands-on method where testers are more involved in the test execution than in preparation.

It is a bug that is a severe roadblock and has interfered with the functionality of the entire website or application.

A defect that was either hidden or concealed and was not apparent upon reasonable or customary examination or inspection. All about latent defect:

  • The time limit for lateral defects can be extended up to six years from the date the cause of action was first identified.
  • It's a unique software flaw that is an error that hasn't happened yet. It is mostly a systematic fault that appears in software while it is being produced and even gets beyond the early testing, which includes pre-production and extended use.
  • One type of fault that persists after a product is produced is a latent one.
  • Modern software testing methods and cutting-edge technology have been developed to eliminate flaws, however unanticipated flaws still exist.
  • In order to identify the flaws, software testers should use and comprehend the proper test cases.

Acceptance testing is a quality assurance (QA) procedure that makes sure how well an application obeys the needs of end users.

Key features of acceptance testing

  • Users are actively involved in the testing process, which allows the project team to understand the users' additional requirements.
  • Executing tests automatically.
  • Due to involvement in the testing process, clients feel confident and satisfied.
  • The user can describe their needs more easily.
  • It just covers the Black-Box testing procedure, therefore the complete product's functionality will be examined.

A procedure called "defect triage" is used to rank defects according to their seriousness, risk, and frequency of occurrence. Though triaging can be used on projects of any size, its advantages are more pronounced and palpable in larger projects.

A stub is a little piece of code used in testing to replace another component. Using a stub has the advantage of returning consistent results, which makes the test easier to construct. And tests can be performed even if the other components are not yet operational.

A tool for testing that automatically compares actual findings to projected results. 

Features of test comparators :

  • Quickly compare transitory events that occur during test execution
  • Post-execution comparison of stored data, such as that found in files or databases
  • Mask or filter the subsets of actual and expected outcomes.

A requirement stack might not be offered for a particular product. If a program contains significant unanticipated functionality, it may take some work to identify it; this would point to more fundamental issues with the software development process.

Before deciding which testing to choose consider such as Periodic execution, recursive repetitive steps are easily tested, tests run in a typical runtime setting, automation speeds up the process, and reusability.

Boundary value analysis is used to locate faults near the edges of the input domain. Boundary value analysis and equivalence partitioning have a relationship and can be applied in tandem at all testing levels.

Description

Why do we consider manual testing interviews to be relevant today? Manual testing is an important part of software quality assurance, where a human tester proceeds with a quality check without using any automation tools. Manual quality assurance can help to find general design and usability flaws, as well as illogical navigation and customer routes, even if automated testing did not find any issues.

Even the most sophisticated automated test scripts are unable to pick up on what a human tester can perceive from the standpoint of the client and comprehend the issue emotionally. Automation tools are made to test the software code exclusively following pre-written scripts, but some serious defects may turn up in places you wouldn't expect. However, QA manual testers may discover some concealed flaws when looking into other problems. Since professional software, maintenance, management, and script creation can consume a significant portion of a development budget, automating the quality assurance processes might become a big concern for small businesses and startups.

Automation might also take a lot of time. To run the tests correctly, QA testers must write the test scripts and configure the automation tools. On the other hand, a tester can more quickly provide input to developers when utilising manual testing to check a small feature. Automation scripts are not immune to defects, just like any software code can have them. It implies that test results could indicate a wrong pass or fail outcome. A manual tester's review of the feature can give it a "human vision" and aid in removing any potential problems.

Successfully integrating automation testing with manual testing is a must to reap all of its benefits. Software testers must specify the areas where each sort of testing may be used with the greatest effectiveness and code coverage to achieve this. When a particular test scenario calls for the input of a lot of data and a complicated environment setup, test automation should be employed (for example, unit, integration, and functional testing). Additionally, performance tests like stress and load testing are frequently automated.

You can prepare effectively now that you have a thorough list of manual testing interview questions and also gain confidence through our Software Testing courses. Repeat these questions until you are prepared to respond with the appropriate responses without halting. To familiarise you with the kind of software tester interview questions that you might be asked during your interview, we will help you with software testing courses and the most often asked manual testing questions. We've included all of the often requested fundamental and advanced testing interview questions for candidates with our experience in our list of software testing interview questions with explanations to make it easier for you to ace the manual testing job interview.

To help candidates prepare for the next interview, we have included about 50+ significant software testing viva questions for freshmen candidates as well as manual testing seasoned interview questions for QA Engineers. You will succeed in your job interview for software testing with the help of KnowledgeHut’s Software Testing courses.

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