PowerShell Interview Questions and Answers for 2023 Programming

A Windows command-line shell called Windows PowerShell was developed to make managing multiple Microsoft products easier. The powerful scripting language Windows PowerShell is used by many system administrators and other IT professionals to automate a range of tasks. In reality, learning even a basic set of Windows PowerShell commands may enable you to automate a lot of tasks. Fundamental, Intermediate level, and Professional level questions are among the categories defined into which the questions are classified below. You can better comprehend the topics by using the guide's step-by-step explanations for each question. With the help of PowerShell Interview Questions, you can be sure that you will be ready for your upcoming interview. Hence, if you want to enhance your career in System Administrator/System Engineer, this blog will be ideal for you.

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Beginner

In PowerShell, a pipeline is a way to pass objects from one command to another, allowing you to chain multiple commands together. The output of one command is used as the input for the next command. This allows you to perform a series of transformations on the data as it passes through the pipeline.

An example of a simple pipeline in PowerShell:

Get-Process | Where-Object {$_.Handles -gt 1000} | Sort-Object Handles | Select-Object -First 5  This pipeline retrieves a list of processes, filters out any processes with fewer than 1000 handles, sorts the remaining processes by the number of handles, and then selects the first 5 processes in the sorted list. Each stage of the pipeline is called a "command," and the commands are separated by the "pipe" character (|). The output of each command is passed to the next command as input. PowerShell can be used for a wide range of tasks, including: • Configuring and managing Windows systems, including services, networking, and Active Directory • Managing and automating various aspects of Microsoft Exchange, SharePoint, and SQL Server • Managing and automating tasks in Azure and other cloud platforms • Interacting with other applications and systems using various APIs and protocols Some key concepts and features of PowerShell that a user should be familiar with include: • Cmdlets: small programs that perform specific tasks and are used to build scripts and automate complex tasks • The pipeline: a feature that allows the output of one cmdlet to be passed as input to another cmdlet, allowing for the creation of complex command chains and workflows • Variables: containers that store data and can be used to pass data between cmdlets and scripts • The Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE): a graphical interface for writing and debugging PowerShell scripts • The help system: a feature that provides information and examples on how to use cmdlets and other PowerShell features. This is one of the most frequently asked PowerShell interview questions for freshers in recent times. An overview of some basic syntax and concepts of PowerShell: 1. Variables: Variables are containers that store data and are denoted by a dollar sign ($). You can create a variable by using the $symbol followed by the variable name, like this:$myVariable = "Hello, world!". To access the value of a variable, simply use the variable name like this: $myVariable. 2. Loops: Loops allow you to execute a block of code multiple times. PowerShell supports several types of loops, including for, while, and do-while. 3. Conditional statements: Conditional statements allow you to execute a block of code only if a certain condition is met. PowerShell supports several types of conditional statements, including if, else, and elseif. To use the help system in PowerShell, you can use the Get-Help cmdlet to display information about PowerShell cmdlets, functions, scripts, and concepts. For example, to get help for a cmdlet, you can use a command like this: Get-Help CmdletName  Replace "CmdletName" with the name of the cmdlet that you want to learn about. PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language. It enables users to control and automate the administration of Windows and other applications. PowerShell provides a powerful and flexible way to manage and automate many aspects of the Windows operating system, including managing the registry, services, processes, and event logs, as well as automating the deployment of applications and servers. It can also be used to manage other platforms, such as Azure and Exchange, using specific PowerShell modules. By Learning Software Programming and getting the certification from here. PowerShell is a versatile tool that can be used for a wide range of purposes, including: Automating tasks and processes: You can use PowerShell to automate many tasks and processes, such as backing up files, configuring and managing Windows services, and managing the registry. Managing and configuring Windows: PowerShell can be used to manage and configure various aspects of the Windows operating system, including the registry, services, processes, and event logs. Managing other platforms: You can use PowerShell to manage other platforms, such as Azure, Exchange, and Active Directory, using specific PowerShell modules. Networking: PowerShell can be used to manage network components, such as DHCP, DNS, and IP addresses, and to automate network tasks, such as creating network shares and managing network permissions. System administration: PowerShell is a useful tool for system administrators, as it can be used to manage and automate many aspects of the Windows operating system, as well as other platforms. Development: PowerShell can be used as a powerful platform for developing custom applications and scripts to automate tasks and processes. Cmdlets (pronounced "command-lets") are specialized commands in the PowerShell command-line shell and scripting language developed by Microsoft. They are used to perform a wide variety of tasks, such as managing the operating system, configuring system settings, and running scripts. Each cmdlet is a standalone command that performs a specific action and is designed to be used in combination with other cmdlets to perform more complex tasks. Cmdlets are typically named using a verb-noun syntax, such as Get-Process or Set-Service, and they can accept a variety of parameters to control their behavior. In PowerShell, cmdlets are implemented as .NET classes and can be written in any .NET language, such as C# or VB.NET. They are often used in scripts and other automation tasks to perform tasks that would be difficult or time-consuming to do manually. This is one of the most frequently asked PowerShell interview questions for freshers in recent times. PowerShell is a command-line shell and scripting language developed by Microsoft. Some of the main features of PowerShell include: • Cmdlets: As mentioned earlier, cmdlets are specialized commands that perform specific actions. There are hundreds of built-in cmdlets available in PowerShell, and developers can also create their own custom cmdlets. • Scripting language: PowerShell includes a powerful scripting language that can be used to automate tasks, create functions and modules, and more. It supports many programming constructs, such as loops, conditional statements, and exception handling. • Integrated .NET framework: PowerShell is built on top of the .NET framework, which means it has access to the full range of .NET classes and libraries. This makes it easy to perform a wide variety of tasks, such as reading and writing to the file system, working with the registry, and interacting with other applications. • Remoting: PowerShell includes a feature called "remoting" that allows you to run commands and scripts on remote computers. This can be useful for managing a network of computers from a single console. • Security: PowerShell includes several features to help ensure the security of scripts and commands, such as signing scripts to verify their authenticity and running scripts in a "restricted" mode to prevent malicious code from being executed. • Object-oriented: PowerShell uses an object-oriented model to represent data and functionality. This makes it easy to manipulate and work with data in a consistent and predictable way. Expect to come across this, one of the most important PowerShell interview questions for experienced professionals in PowerShell scripting, in your next interviews. PowerShell is a more advanced command-line shell than the Command Prompt. It was designed to be more powerful and flexible than the Command Prompt and to provide a better scripting language. Some of the key differences between PowerShell and the Command Prompt include the following: • PowerShell is object-oriented and has a more powerful scripting language. It allows you to manipulate objects and perform tasks that would be difficult or impossible to do in the Command Prompt. • PowerShell supports tab completion, which makes it easier to type commands and helps reduce the risk of typos. • PowerShell has a more modern and user-friendly interface, with features such as syntax highlighting and context-sensitive help. • PowerShell can be extended using snap-ins and modules, which allow you to add new commands and functionality to the shell. • Overall, PowerShell is a more powerful and flexible tool than the Command Prompt and is well-suited for advanced users and administrators who need to automate tasks and manage systems more effectively. example, you can use the following command to list all the cmdlets that are installed on your system: Get-Command -CommandType Cmdlet  You can also use the -Module parameter to list the cmdlets in a specific module. For example, to list all the cmdlets in the Active Directory module, you can use the following command: Get-Command -Module ActiveDirectory  You can also use the -Noun parameter to list cmdlets with a specific noun. For example, to list all the cmdlets that have the noun of "Service", you can use the following command: Get-Command -Noun Service  Finally, you can use the -Verb parameter to list cmdlets with a specific verb. For example, to list all the cmdlets that have the verb "Get", you can use the following command: Get-Command -Verb Get  These are just a few examples of how you can use the Get-Command cmdlet to list the cmdlets available in PowerShell. There are many other options and parameters that you can use to refine your search and find the cmdlets that you need. To get help for a specific cmdlet in PowerShell, you can use the Get-Help cmdlet. For example, to get help for the Get-Process cmdlet, you can use the following command: Get-Help Get-Process  This will display detailed information about the cmdlet, including a description of its purpose, its syntax, and its parameters. You can also use the -Examples parameter to see examples of how to use the cmdlet: Get-Help Get-Process -Examples  If you want to see the complete documentation for the cmdlet, including all of the available parameters and examples, you can use the -Full parameter: Get-Help Get-Process -Full  Finally, if you just want a brief summary of the cmdlet and its syntax, you can use the -ShowWindow parameter: Get-Help Get-Process -ShowWindow  This will display the helpful information in a separate window, making it easier to read and reference. These are just a few examples of how you can use the Get-Help cmdlet to get help for specific cmdlets in PowerShell. There are many other options and parameters that you can use to customize the help information that you see. To run a PowerShell script, you need to open the PowerShell environment first. You can do this by clicking on the Start menu, typing "PowerShell" into the search box, and then clicking on the PowerShell icon. Once the PowerShell environment is open, you can run a script by typing its name at the prompt and pressing Enter. For example, if you have a script named "MyScript.ps1" in the current directory, you can run it by typing the following command: .\MyScript.ps1  Alternatively, you can use the Invoke-Expression cmdlet to run the script. For example: Invoke-Expression -Command ".\MyScript.ps1"  You can also use the -File parameter of the PowerShell command to run a script. For example: PowerShell -File .\MyScript.ps1  If you want to run a script from a different directory, you will need to specify the full path to the script file. For example: .\C:\Scripts\MyScript.ps1  Keep in mind that scripts can contain arbitrary code and may have unintended consequences if run improperly. It is a good idea to review the code in a script before running it to ensure that it does what you expect it to do. To create a function in PowerShell, you can use the function keyword followed by the name of the function and then include your code inside curly braces. For example: function MyFunction { # function code goes here }  You can also include parameters in your function by specifying them inside the parentheses following the function name. For example: function MyFunction { param($parameter1, $parameter2) # function code goes here }  To run a function, you can simply type its name followed by any required parameters at the PowerShell prompt. For example: MyFunction -parameter1 value1 -parameter2 value2  You can also define your function in a script file and then run the script to execute the function. For example, you could create a script file named "MyScript.ps1" with the following contents: function MyFunction { param($parameter1, $parameter2) # function code goes here } MyFunction -parameter1 value1 -parameter2 value2  Then, you can run the script by typing the following command at the PowerShell prompt: .\MyScript.ps1  In PowerShell, you can create and work with variables in a number of ways. To create a variable, you can simply assign a value to it using the$ symbol followed by the variable name. For example:

$myVariable = "Hello, world!"  You can also use the New-Variable cmdlet to create a variable. For example: New-Variable -Name myVariable -Value "Hello, world!"  Once you have created a variable, you can use it in your PowerShell commands by using the$ symbol followed by the variable name. For example:

Write-Output $myVariable  To change the value of a variable, you can simply assign a new value to it using the assignment operator =. For example: $myVariable = "Goodbye, world!"

You can also use the Set-Variable cmdlet to change the value of a variable. For example:

Set-Variable -Name myVariable -Value "Goodbye, world!"

Finally, you can use the Remove-Variable cmdlet to delete a variable. For example:

Remove-Variable -Name myVariable

These are just a few examples of how you can work with variables in PowerShell. There are many other options and cmdlets that you can use to manipulate variables and work with them in your scripts and commands.

In PowerShell, you can use loops and conditional statements to control the flow of your scripts and commands.

To use a loop in PowerShell, you can use them for, for each, while, and make statements.

For example, here is a simple for loop that counts from 1 to 10:

for ($i = 1;$i -le 10; $i++) { Write-Output$i
} 

Here is a simple foreach loop that iterates over an array of strings:

$colors = "red", "green", "blue" foreach ($color in $colors) { Write-Output$color
} 

Here is a simple while loop that continues until a condition is met:

$i = 1 while ($i -le 10) {
Write-Output $i$i++
} 

And here is a simple do loop that executes at least once and then continues until a condition is met:

$i = 1 do { Write-Output$i
$i++ } while ($i -le 10) 

To use a conditional statement in PowerShell, you can use the if, elseif, and else statements.

For example, here is a simple if statement that executes a block of code if a condition is true:

if ($i -gt 10) { Write-Output "i is greater than 10" }  Here is a simple if/else statement that executes one block of code if a condition is true and another block of code if the condition is false: if ($i -gt 10) {
Write-Output "i is greater than 10"
} else {
Write-Output "i is not greater than 10"
} 

And here is a simple if/elseif/else statement that checks multiple conditions and executes different blocks of code depending on which condition is true:

if ($i -gt 10) { Write-Output "i is greater than 10" } elseif ($i -eq 10) {
Write-Output "i is equal to 10"
} else {
Write-Output "i is less than 10"
} 

These are just a few examples of how you can use loops and conditional statements in PowerShell. There are many other options and variations that you can use to control the flow of your scripts and commands.

To work with the filesystem in PowerShell, you can use a variety of cmdlets that allow you to create, delete, and modify files and directories.

For example, to create a new directory, you can use the New-Item cmdlet with the -ItemType Directory parameter. For example:

New-Item -ItemType Directory -Path C:\MyDirectory

To create a new file, you can use the New-Item cmdlet with the -ItemType File parameter. For example:

New-Item -ItemType File -Path C:\MyDirectory\MyFile.txt

To delete a file or directory, you can use the Remove-Item cmdlet. For example:

Remove-Item -Path C:\MyDirectory\MyFile.txt

To move a file or directory, you can use the Move-Item cmdlet. For example:

Move-Item -Path C:\MyDirectory\MyFile.txt -Destination C:\MyOtherDirectory

To copy a file or directory, you can use the Copy-Item cmdlet. For example:

Copy-Item -Path C:\MyDirectory\MyFile.txt -Destination C:\MyOtherDirectory

To read the contents of a file, you can use the Get-Content cmdlet. For example:

Get-Content -Path C:\MyDirectory\MyFile.txt

To write to a file, you can use the Set-Content cmdlet. For example:

Set-Content -Path C:\MyDirectory\MyFile.txt -Value "Hello, world!"

These are just a few examples of the cmdlets that you can use to work with the filesystem in PowerShell. There are many other cmdlets and options that you can use to perform a wide range of tasks related to files and directories.

There are a few tools and techniques that you can use to troubleshoot problems with PowerShell scripts and commands.

One of the most useful tools for troubleshooting PowerShell scripts is the Set-PSDebug cmdlet, which allows you to enable or disable various debugging options. For example, you can use the -Trace parameter to display verbose output that can help you understand what is happening behind the scenes:

Set-PSDebug -Trace 1

You can also use the -Strict parameter to enable strict mode, which causes PowerShell to generate an error if you use an uninitialized variable or an undefined function:

Set-PSDebug -Strict

Another useful tool for troubleshooting PowerShell scripts is the Write-Debug cmdlet, which allows you to add debugging output to your script. For example:

Write-Debug "This is a debug message"

You can also use the Try/Catch/Finally blocks to handle errors and exceptions in your scripts. For example:

Try {
# code that might throw an exception goes here
} Catch {
# code to handle the exception goes here
} Finally {
# code to execute after the Try block regardless of whether an exception was thrown, goes here
} 

Finally, you can use the Get-Error cmdlet to display information about the last error that occurred. For example:

Get-Error

These are just a few examples of the tools and techniques that you can use to troubleshoot problems with PowerShell scripts and commands. There are many other options and cmdlets that you can use to diagnose and fix issues in your scripts and commands.

PowerShell remoting allows you to run PowerShell commands and scripts on a remote computer. To use PowerShell remoting, you need to enable the feature on both the local and remote computers and then use the Invoke-Command cmdlet to run commands on the remote computer.

Here are the steps to enable and use PowerShell remoting:

On the local computer, open a PowerShell window with administrative privileges and run the following command to enable the feature:

Enable-PSRemoting

On the remote computer, open a PowerShell window with administrative privileges and run the following command to enable the feature:

Enable-PSRemoting

On the local computer, use the Invoke-Command cmdlet to run a command on the remote computer. For example, to run the Get-Process cmdlet on the remote computer, you can use the following command:

Invoke-Command -ComputerName MyRemoteComputer -ScriptBlock { Get-Process }

Replace MyRemoteComputer with the name or IP address of the remote computer.

You can also use the -Credential parameter to specify a different user account to run the command under. For example:

Invoke-Command -ComputerName MyRemoteComputer -Credential MyDomain\MyUser -ScriptBlock { Get-Process }

You can also use the -AsJob parameter to run the command as a background job, allowing you to run multiple commands simultaneously.

These are just a few examples of how you can use PowerShell remoting to run commands on a remote computer. There are many other options and parameters that you can use to customize the way that you run commands and scripts on the remote computer.

A must-know for anyone looking for PowerShell interview questions, this is one of the frequently asked PowerShell interview questions.

In PowerShell, brackets are used to enclose blocks of code and to indicate scope.

For example, you can use curly braces { } to enclose a block of code that should be executed as a unit. This is often used in loops, conditional statements, and functions to specify the code that should be executed when the loop or conditional statement is encountered, or when the function is called.

For example:

if ($i -gt 10) { Write-Output "i is greater than 10" }  In this example, the code inside the curly braces { } will be executed if the condition$i -gt 10 is true.

You can also use brackets to indicate scope in PowerShell. For example, you can use parentheses ( ) to create a subexpression within a larger expression, or to override the normal precedence of operators.

For example:

$result = (2 + 3) * 4  In this example, the subexpression 2 + 3 is evaluated first, and the result is then multiplied by 4. Brackets are also used in PowerShell to enclose command parameters and arguments. For example: Get-Process -Name "explorer"  In this example, the brackets are used to enclose the value of the -Name In PowerShell, automatic variables are special variables that are created and maintained by PowerShell itself. They are called "automatic" because they are created automatically and are not created or modified by the user. There are many different automatic variables in PowerShell, and each one has a specific purpose. Some of the most commonly used automatic variables include: •$_: This variable represents the current object in the pipeline. It is often used in loops and cmdlets that process objects one at a time.
• $PSScriptRoot: This variable represents the directory in which the current script is located. •$PSCommandPath: This variable represents the full path of the script or command that is currently being executed.
• $Error: This variable contains a collection of error objects representing the errors that have occurred in the current session. •$PSVersionTable: This variable contains information about the version of PowerShell that is currently being used.

These are just a few examples of the automatic variables that are available in PowerShell. There are many others, and you can use the Get-Variable cmdlet to see a list of all the automatic variables that are defined in your session.

In PowerShell, a scope is a region of the script or command in which a particular set of variables, functions and other objects are accessible. There are several types of scopes in PowerShell, including:

• Global scope: This is the top-level scope in PowerShell, and it is available to all scripts and commands. Objects in the global scope are accessible from anywhere in the session.
• Local scope: This is a scope that is created within a script or function. Objects in the local scope are only accessible within that script or function.
• Script scope: This is a scope that is created when a script is run. Objects in the script scope are only accessible within that script.
• Private scope: This is a scope that is created within a script or function and is used to store private variables and functions that are not accessible outside of that script or function.
• Dynamic scope: This is a scope that is created when a script or command is run in the context of another scope. The dynamic scope inherits the variables and other objects from the parent scope, but any changes made to the variables in the dynamic scope do not affect the variables in the parent scope.

These are the main types of scopes in PowerShell. Understanding how scopes work is important for managing the visibility and accessibility of objects in your scripts and commands.

PowerShell Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) is a graphical user interface (GUI) for writing and debugging PowerShell scripts. It provides a number of features that can make it easier to develop and test PowerShell scripts, including:

• Syntax highlighting: PowerShell ISE provides syntax highlighting to make it easier to read and write scripts.
• IntelliSense: PowerShell ISE provides IntelliSense, which is a set of code completion and suggestion tools that can help you write scripts more quickly and accurately.
• Debugging: PowerShell ISE includes a built-in debugger that allows you to set breakpoints, step through code, and inspect variables as you debug your scripts.
• Code snippets: PowerShell ISE includes a library of code snippets that can help you insert commonly used code into your scripts.
• Output pane: PowerShell ISE includes an output pane that displays the results of your scripts and commands, making it easier to see what your scripts are doing.
• PowerShell console: PowerShell ISE includes a built-in PowerShell console that allows you to run commands and scripts directly from the interface.

These are just a few examples of the features that are available in PowerShell ISE. It is a powerful and flexible tool that can be a useful addition to any developer's toolkit.

A must-know for anyone looking for PowerShell interview questions, this is one of the frequently asked PowerShell interview questions.

There are several differences between Bash and PowerShell, but some of the most important differences include:

• Syntax: Bash and PowerShell use different syntax for commands, scripts, and programming constructs. Bash uses a shell syntax that is similar to the Unix shell, while PowerShell uses a syntax that is based on the .NET Framework.
• Object-oriented approach: PowerShell is an object-oriented shell, which means that it treats everything as an object and provides a range of object-oriented features, such as inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation. Bash, on the other hand, is a text-based shell that does not have these object-oriented features.
• Built-in support for remoting: PowerShell has built-in support for running commands and scripts on remote computers, which makes it easy to automate tasks across multiple systems. Bash does not have this built-in capability.

These are just a few examples of the differences between Bash and PowerShell. There are many other differences as well, and the choice of which shell to use will depend on your specific needs and preferences.

There are several reasons why developers might choose to use PowerShell:

• Automation: PowerShell is designed for automation, and it provides a wide range of tools and features for automating tasks and processes. This can be particularly useful for developers who need to automate repetitive tasks or deploy applications and updates on multiple systems.
• Object-oriented approach: As an object-oriented shell, PowerShell allows developers to work with objects and use object-oriented programming concepts, such as inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation. This can make it easier to write modular, reusable code.
• Interoperability: PowerShell provides a number of features and tools that make it easy to interoperate with other systems and technologies. For example, it has built-in support for remoting, which allows developers to run commands and scripts on remote computers, and it has a rich set of cmdlets for working with the .NET Framework and other technologies.
• Productivity: Many developers find that PowerShell can help them be more productive by providing a powerful and flexible environment for writing scripts and automating tasks.

These are just a few examples of the reasons why developers might choose to use PowerShell. There are many other benefits to using PowerShell, and the choice of whether to use it will depend on your specific needs and goals.

Intermediate

To create a custom cmdlet in PowerShell, you need to create a class that inherits from the System.Management.Automation.Cmdlet class and define the appropriate methods and parameters.

Here's an example of a simple cmdlet that multiplies two numbers:

class MultiplyNumbers : Cmdlet
{
[Parameter(Position=0)]
public int X { get; set; }
[Parameter(Position=1)]
public int Y { get; set; }
protected override void ProcessRecord()
{
WriteObject(X * Y);
}
} 

To use this cmdlet, you need to compile it into a dynamic-link library (DLL) and then import the DLL into your PowerShell session.

To compile the cmdlet, you can use the Add-Type cmdlet:

Add-Type -TypeDefinition @"
using System.Management.Automation;
class MultiplyNumbers : Cmdlet
{
[Parameter(Position=0)]
public int X { get; set; }
[Parameter(Position=1)]
public int Y { get; set; }
protected override void ProcessRecord()
{
WriteObject(X * Y);
}
}
"@ -OutputAssembly C:\path\to\MultiplyNumbers.dll 

To import the DLL into your PowerShell session, you can use the Import-Module cmdlet:

Import-Module C:\path\to\MultiplyNumbers.dll 

You can then use the cmdlet like any other cmdlet:

MultiplyNumbers -X 2 -Y 3 

This will output 6.

The PowerShell ISE (Integrated Scripting Environment) is a graphical user interface for developing and debugging PowerShell scripts. It provides features such as syntax highlighting, code completion, and debugging tools.

To start the PowerShell ISE, you can type powershell_ise in the Start menu or run the powershell_ise.exe file from the installation directory.

In the PowerShell ISE, you can create a new script by clicking the File menu and selecting New. You can open an existing script by clicking the File menu and selecting Open.

To run a script, you can press F5 or click the Debug menu and select Start Debugging.

To set a breakpoint in a script, you can click in the margin to the left of the line of code or press F9. You can then use the Debug menu or the debugging toolbar to step through the code, examine variables, and perform other debugging tasks.

Don't be surprised if this question pops up as one of the top PowerShell interview questions in your next interview.

Regular expressions are a powerful tool for pattern matching and text manipulation. You can use regular expressions in PowerShell by using the -match operator or the Select-String cmdlet.

Here's an example of using the -match operator to check if a string matches a regular expression:

$string = "Hello, world!" if ($string -match "world") {
Write-Output "The string contains the word 'world'."
} 

Here's an example of using the Select-String cmdlet to extract all the words that start with the letter "s" from a string:

$string = "This is a test string."$matches = Select-String -InputObject $string -Pattern "\bs\w*" -AllMatches foreach ($match in $matches.Matches) { Write-Output$match.Value
} 

This will output "string".

You can find more information about using regular expressions in PowerShell in the PowerShell documentation or by using the Get-Help cmdlet. For example:

Get-Help about_Regular_Expressions 

This, along with other interview questions on PowerShell for freshers, is a regular feature in PowerShell interviews, be ready to tackle it with the approach mentioned below.

The PowerShell pipeline allows you to chain cmdlets together, passing the output of one cmdlet as the input to another cmdlet. This allows you to create complex command lines by combining simple commands.

To use the pipeline, you use the | (pipe) character to separate cmdlets. The output of the first cmdlet is passed as the input to the second cmdlet.

Here's an example of using the pipeline to get the services that are running on the local machine and are set to start automatically:

Get-Service | Where-Object { $_.Status -eq "Running" } | Where-Object {$_.StartType -eq "Automatic" } 

You can also use the Foreach-Object cmdlet to process the output of a cmdlet one object at a time:

Get-Service | Where-Object { $_.Status -eq "Running" } | Foreach-Object { Write-Output "$($_.Name) is running." }  You can find more information about the PowerShell pipeline in the PowerShell documentation or by using the Get-Help cmdlet. For example: Get-Help about_Pipelines  In PowerShell, you can use the .NET Framework to create and manipulate .NET objects. To do this, you can use the New-Object cmdlet to create an instance of a .NET class, and then use dot notation to access the properties and methods of that object. For example, to create a System.DateTime object representing the current date and time, you can use the following command: $date = New-Object System.DateTime 

To access the properties of the object, you can use dot notation. For example, to access the year, month, and day of the current date, you can use the following commands:

$year =$date.Year
$month =$date.Month
$day =$date.Day 

You can also use dot notation to call methods of the object. For example, to add two days to the current date, you can use the following command:

$newDate =$date.AddDays(2) 

In addition to creating new objects, you can also work with existing .NET objects that are returned by cmdlets or functions. For example, the Get-Process cmdlet returns a System.Diagnostics.Process object for each process on the system. You can use dot notation to access the properties and methods of these objects in the same way as with any other .NET object.

For more information on working with .NET objects in PowerShell, you can review the Microsoft documentation on the topic.

This type of questions is asked in PowerShell interview questions for advanced level or a level below advanced.

This is general PowerShell scripting interview question and has been asked several times.

PowerShell includes several cmdlets and features for working with XML data. Here are some common tasks you can perform with PowerShell and XML:

Parsing XML: To parse an XML document and access its data, you can use the Get-Content cmdlet to read the XML file into a string, and then use the [xml] type accelerator to convert the string to an XmlDocument object. You can then use the SelectNodes method of the XmlDocument object to select nodes from the XML tree and access their data using the InnerText property. For example:

$xml = Get-Content -Path C:\file.XML$doc = [xml]$xml$nodes = $doc.SelectNodes("/root/element") for each ($node in $nodes) {$node.InnerText
} 

Modifying XML: To modify an XML document, you can use the XmlDocument object and its methods to add, modify, or delete nodes in the XML tree. For example, to add a new element to an XML document, you can use the CreateElement method of the XmlDocument object to create a new XmlElement object and then use the AppendChild method to add it to the document. To modify an existing element, you can use the SetAttribute method to change the

$xml = Get-Content -Path C:\file.xml$doc = [xml]$xml$element = $doc.CreateElement("newElement")$element.InnerText = "value"
$doc.DocumentElement.AppendChild($element) 

Saving XML: To save an XML document to a file, you can use the Save method of the XmlDocument object, and specify the file path as an argument. For example:

$xml = Get-Content -Path C:\file.xml$doc = [xml]$xml$doc.Save("C:\modified.xml") 

For more information on working with XML in PowerShell, you can review the Microsoft documentation on the topic.

To work with JSON data in PowerShell, you can use the ConvertFrom-Json and ConvertTo-Json cmdlets.

Here is an example of using the ConvertFrom-Json cmdlet to parse a JSON string and store it in a variable:

$json = '{ "name": "John Smith", "age": 30, "city": "New York" }'$object = ConvertFrom-Json $json  You can then access the properties of the object like this: $object.name
# Output: John Smith
$object.age # Output: 30$object.city
# Output: New York 

You can also use the ConvertTo-Json cmdlet to convert an object back into a JSON string:

$json =$object | ConvertTo-Json
# Output: {"name": "John Smith", "age":30, "city": "New York"} 

To work with CSV data in PowerShell, you can use the Import-Csv and Export-Csv cmdlets.

Here is an example of using the Import-Csv cmdlet to read a CSV file and store it in a variable:

$csv = Import-Csv C:\path\to\file.csv  You can then access the rows of the CSV file like this: $csv | Foreach-Object {
# Each row is a PSObject with the column values as properties
$name =$_.Name
$age =$_.Age
$city =$_.City
# Do something with the values...
} 

You can also use the Export-Csv cmdlet to convert an object into a CSV file:

$object | Export-Csv C:\path\to\file.csv -NoTypeInformation  The -NoTypeInformation parameter is optional, but it prevents PowerShell from adding a type information row to the top of the CSV file. To work with Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) in PowerShell, you can use the Get-WmiObject cmdlet. Here is an example of using Get-WmiObject to get information about the operating system on the local computer: $os = Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_OperatingSystem
$os | Select-Object Caption, Version, BuildNumber  This will return the operating system name, version, and build number. You can also use Get-WmiObject to get information about other aspects of the system, such as the processor, memory, and installed software. For example: # Get processor information$processor = Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_Processor
$processor | Select-Object Name, Manufacturer, NumberOfCores, NumberOfLogicalProcessors # Get memory information$memory = Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_PhysicalMemory
$memory | Select-Object Capacity, Manufacturer, PartNumber # Get installed software$software = Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_Product
$software | Select-Object Name, Vendor, Version  You can find a list of WMI classes and their properties on the Microsoft website or by using the Get-WmiObject -List cmdlet. To work with the Task Scheduler in PowerShell, you can use the ScheduledTasks module. Here are some common tasks you can perform with the Task Scheduler using PowerShell: List all tasks: Get-ScheduledTask  Get the properties of the specific task: Get-ScheduledTask -TaskName "MyTask" | Select-Object *  Create a new task: $action = New-ScheduledTaskAction -Execute "C:\path\to\program.exe"
$trigger = New-ScheduledTaskTrigger -AtLogOn$settings = New-ScheduledTaskSettingsSet
Register-ScheduledTask -Action $action -Trigger$trigger -TaskName "MyTask" -Description "My task description" -Settings $settings  Enable or disable a task: Disable-ScheduledTask -TaskName "MyTask" Enable-ScheduledTask -TaskName "MyTask"  Remove a task: Unregister-ScheduledTask -TaskName "MyTask"  You can find more information about the ScheduledTasks module and its cmdlets in the PowerShell documentation or by using the Get-Help cmdlet. For example: Get-Help Register-ScheduledTask  To work with certificates in PowerShell, you can use the Certificate module. Here are some common tasks you can perform with certificates using PowerShell: List all certificates in the local machine store: Get-ChildItem -Path "Cert:\LocalMachine\My"  Get the properties of a specific certificate: Get-ChildItem -Path "Cert:\LocalMachine\My\thumbprint" | Select-Object *  Export a certificate:$cert = Get-ChildItem -Path "Cert:\LocalMachine\My\thumbprint"

Export-Certificate -Cert $cert -FilePath C:\path\to\certificate.cer Import a certificate: Import-Certificate -FilePath C:\path\to\certificate.cer -CertStoreLocation Cert:\LocalMachine\My  Remove a certificate: $cert = Get-ChildItem -Path "Cert:\LocalMachine\My\thumbprint"
Remove-Item -Path $cert.PSPath  You can find more information about the Certificate module and its cmdlets in the PowerShell documentation or by using the Get-Help cmdlet. For example: Get-Help Export-Certificate  This is a common yet one of the most important PowerShell interview questions and answers for experienced professionals, don't miss this one. To work with Internet Information Services (IIS) in PowerShell, you can use the WebAdministration module. Here are some common tasks you can perform with IIS using PowerShell: List all websites: Get-ChildItem IIS:\Sites  Get the properties of a specific website: Get-Item IIS:\Sites\Default Web Site | Select-Object *  Create a new website: New-Item IIS:\Sites\MySite -PhysicalPath C:\path\to\website -BindingInformation "*:8080:"  Start or stop a website: Stop-WebSite -Name "MySite" Start-WebSite -Name "MySite"  Remove a website: Remove-WebSite -Name "MySite"  You can find more information about the WebAdministration module and its cmdlets in the PowerShell documentation or by using the Get-Help cmdlet. For example: Get-Help New-Item -IIS  To work with Exchange Server in PowerShell, you can use the Exchange module. Before you can use the Exchange module, you need to install the Exchange Management Tools and connect to your Exchange server. You can do this by running the following cmdlets: Install-Module -Name ExchangeOnlineManagement$user = "user@domain.com"
$password = ConvertTo-SecureString "password" -AsPlainText -Force$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential($user,$password)
Connect-ExchangeOnline -Credential $credential  Here are some common tasks you can perform with Exchange Server using PowerShell: List all mailboxes: Get-Mailbox  Get the properties of a specific mailbox: Get-Mailbox -Identity "John Smith" | Select-Object *  Create a new mailbox: New-Mailbox -Name "John Smith" -UserPrincipalName "john.smith@domain.com" -Password (ConvertTo-SecureString "password" -AsPlainText -Force) -FirstName John -LastName Smith  Enable or disable a mailbox: Disable-Mailbox -Identity "John Smith" Enable-Mailbox -Identity "John Smith"  Remove a mailbox: Remove-Mailbox -Identity "John Smith"  You can find more information about the Exchange module and its cmdlets in the PowerShell documentation or by using the Get-Help cmdlet. For example: Get-Help New-Mailbox  To work with SQL Server in PowerShell, you can use the SqlServer module. Before you can use the SqlServer module, you need to install the module and connect to your SQL Server instance. You can do this by running the following cmdlets: Install-Module -Name SqlServer$server = "server\instance"
$database = "database"$user = "user"
$password = "password"$connectionString = "Server=$server;Database=$database;User ID=$user;Password=$password;"
$connection = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlConnection$connection.ConnectionString = $connectionString$connection.Open() 

Here are some common tasks you can perform with SQL Server using PowerShell:

Execute a query:

$query = "SELECT * FROM table"$command = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand($query,$connection)
$reader =$command.ExecuteReader()
while ($reader.Read()) { # Process the result... }$reader.Close() 

Insert data into a table:

$query = "INSERT INTO table (column1, column2) VALUES (@value1, @value2)"$command = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand($query,$connection)
$command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@value1", "foo")$command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@value2", 123)
$command.ExecuteNonQuery()  Update data in a table: $query = "UPDATE table SET column1 = @value1 WHERE column2 = @value2"
$command = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand($query, $connection)$command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@value1", "foo")
$command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@value2", 123)$command.ExecuteNonQuery() 

Delete data from a table:

$query = "DELETE FROM table WHERE column1 = @value1"$command = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand($query,$connection)
$command.Parameters.AddWithValue("@value1", "foo")$command.ExecuteNonQuery() 

Don't forget to close the connection when you're finished:

$connection.Close()  You can find more information about the SqlServer module and its cmdlets in the PowerShell documentation or by using the Get-Help cmdlet. For example: Get-Help Invoke-Sqlcmd To work with SharePoint in PowerShell, you can use the SharePointPnPPowerShellOnline module. Before you can use the SharePointPnPPowerShellOnline module, you need to install the module and connect to your SharePoint Online tenant. You can do this by running the following cmdlets: Install-Module -Name SharePointPnPPowerShellOnline Connect-PnPOnline -Url https://tenant.sharepoint.com -Credentials (Get-Credential)  Here are some common tasks you can perform with SharePoint using PowerShell: List all sites: Get-PnPTenantSite  Get the properties of a specific site: Get-PnPTenantSite -Url https://tenant.sharepoint.com/sites/mysite | Select-Object *  Create a new site: New-PnPTenantSite -Type TeamSite -Title "My Site" -Url "mysite" -Owner "user@tenant.onmicrosoft.com" -TimeZone 4  Delete a site: Remove-PnPTenantSite -Url https://tenant.sharepoint.com/sites/mysite  You can find more information about the SharePointPnPPowerShellOnline module and its cmdlets in the PowerShell documentation or by using the Get-Help cmdlet. For example: Get-Help New-PnPTenantSite  To work with Azure in PowerShell, you can use the Az module. Before you can use the Az module, you need to install the module and connect to your Azure account. You can do this by running the following cmdlets: Install-Module -Name Az Connect-AzAccount  This will prompt you to sign in to your Azure account. Here are some common tasks you can perform with Azure using PowerShell: List all resource groups: Get-AzResourceGroup  Get the properties of a specific resource group: Get-AzResourceGroup -Name "myresourcegroup" | Select-Object *  Create a new resource group: New-AzResourceGroup -Name "myresourcegroup" -Location "eastus"  Delete a resource group: Remove-AzResourceGroup -Name "myresourcegroup"  You can find more information about the Az module and its cmdlets in the PowerShell documentation or by using the Get-Help cmdlet. For example: Get-Help New-AzResourceGroup  To work with Hyper-V in PowerShell, you can use the Hyper-V module. Here are some common tasks you can perform with Hyper-V using PowerShell: List all virtual machines: Get-VM  Get the properties of a specific virtual machine: Get-VM -Name "MyVM" | Select-Object *  Create a new virtual machine: New-VM -Name "MyVM" -MemoryStartupBytes 1GB -NewVHDPath "C:\path\to\virtualdisk.vhdx" -NewVHDSizeBytes 120GB -Path "C:\path\to\virtualmachines"  Start or stop a virtual machine: Stop-VM -Name "MyVM" Start-VM -Name "MyVM"  Remove a virtual machine: Remove-VM -Name "MyVM"  You can find more information about the Hyper-V module and its cmdlets in the PowerShell documentation or by using the Get-Help cmdlet. For example: Get-Help New-VM To work with Git in PowerShell, you can use the Git module. Before you can use the Git module, you need to install Git on your system and make sure it is added to your PATH. Here are some common tasks you can perform with Git using PowerShell: Clone a repository: git clone https://github.com/user/repo.git  Check the status of the repository: git status  Add changes to the staging area: git add .  Commit changes: git commit -m "Commit message"  Push changes to the remote repository: git push  You can find more information about the Git module and its cmdlets in the PowerShell documentation or by using the Get-Help cmdlet. For example: Get-Help git  To work with containers in PowerShell, you can use the Docker module. Before you can use the Docker module, you need to install Docker on your system. Here are some common tasks you can perform with Docker using PowerShell: List all running containers: docker ps  List all containers (running and stopped): docker ps -a  Get the properties of a specific container: docker inspect mycontainer  Run a new container: docker run -d --name mycontainer -p 8080:80 nginx  Stop a container: docker stop mycontainer  Remove a container: docker rm mycontainer  You can find more information about the Docker module and its cmdlets in the PowerShell documentation or by using the Get-Help cmdlet. For example: Get-Help docker run To work with Windows events and event logs in PowerShell, you can use the Get-EventLog cmdlet to retrieve events from event logs, and the Write-EventLog cmdlet to write events to event logs. Here are some examples of how you can use these cmdlets: To retrieve all the events from the System event log, you can use the following command: Get-EventLog -LogName System  To filter the events that are retrieved, you can use the -Source, -EventID, and -EntryType parameters. For example, to retrieve only error events from the System event log, you can use the following command: Get-EventLog -LogName System -EntryType Error  To write an event to an event log, you can use the Write-EventLog cmdlet. For example, to write an information event to the Application event log, you can use the following command: Write-EventLog -LogName Application -Source MySource -EntryType Information -EventId 1000 -Message "This is an information event"  These are just a few examples of how you can use PowerShell to work with Windows events and event logs. There are many other options and parameters that you can use to customize the way that you retrieve and write events. Advanced To create an advanced function in PowerShell, you can use the Function keyword followed by the name of the function and any parameters it should accept. For example: Function MyFunction { # function body goes here }  To add parameter validation to a function, you can use the Param block at the beginning of the function. For example: Function MyFunction { Param ( [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
[string]$Name, [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
[int]$Age ) # function body goes here }  This defines two parameters for the function, Name and Age, both of which are required (mandatory). You can also specify other options for the parameters, such as their data type and whether they are mandatory or optional. To add help documentation to a function, you can use the Comment-Based Help syntax. This consists of a series of specially formatted comments at the beginning of the function that contain the help documentation. For example: Function MyFunction { <# .SYNOPSIS This is a brief summary of the function. .DESCRIPTION This is a more detailed description of the function. .PARAMETER Name This is a description of the Name parameter. .PARAMETER Age This is a description of the Age parameter. .EXAMPLE MyFunction -Name "John" -Age 30 #> Param ( [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
[string]$Name, [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
[int]$Age ) # function body goes here }  You can then use the Get-Help cmdlet to display the help documentation for the function. For example: Get-Help MyFunction  This will display the summary, description, and parameter information for the function. This type of questions are PowerShell interview questions advanced level. One of the most frequently posed PowerShell scenario based interview questions, be ready for this conceptual question. To create a PowerShell module, you can create a folder with the same name as the module and then create one or more PowerShell scripts or functions within that folder. For example, if you wanted to create a module called MyModule, you could create a folder called MyModule and then add your scripts or functions to that folder. To expose the functions and scripts in your module to the PowerShell environment, you can create a module manifest file, which is a PowerShell script with a .psd1 extension that defines the module's metadata and specifies which functions and scripts should be imported into the PowerShell environment when the module is loaded. For example, suppose you have a function called MyFunction in a script called MyScript.ps1 within your MyModule folder. To create a module manifest for this module, you could create a file called MyModule.psd1 with the following content: @{ ModuleVersion = '1.0' Author = 'John Smith' Description = 'This is my PowerShell module.' FunctionsToExport = '*' CmdletsToExport = '*' VariablesToExport = '*' AliasesToExport = '*' PrivateData = @{ PSData = @{ Functions = @('MyFunction') Scripts = @('MyScript.ps1') } } }  This manifest file specifies the metadata for the module, such as its version and author, as well as the functions, cmdlets, variables, and aliases that should be exported when the module is imported. It also specifies the scripts and functions that are included in the module. To publish your module, you can use the Publish-Module cmdlet. For example: Publish-Module -Name MyModule -NuGetApiKey xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx -Repository PSGallery  This will publish your module to the PowerShell Gallery, which is a central repository for PowerShell modules. You will need to provide a NuGet API key to authenticate the publishing process. Once your module is published, other users will be able to install and use it by running the Install-Module cmdlet and specifying the name of your module. For example: Install-Module -Name MyModule  This will install your module and make its functions and scripts available to the PowerShell environment. PowerShell allows you to work with .NET assemblies and COM objects in several ways. To work with .NET assemblies, you can use the Add-Type cmdlet to load the assembly and access its types and members. For example: Add-Type -AssemblyName System.Web # create an instance of the HttpUtility class$httpUtility = New-Object System.Web.HttpUtility
# use the HtmlEncode method to encode a string
$encodedString =$httpUtility.HtmlEncode("<html>") 

You can also use the [Reflection.Assembly]::Load() method to load an assembly and the [Type]::GetType() method to get a type from the assembly. For example:

[Reflection.Assembly]::Load("System.Web, Version=4.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b03f5f7f11d50a3a")
# get the HttpUtility type
$httpUtilityType = [Type]::GetType("System.Web.HttpUtility, System.Web, Version=4.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b03f5f7f11d50a3a") # create an instance of the HttpUtility class$httpUtility = New-Object $httpUtilityType # use the HtmlEncode method to encode a string$encodedString = $httpUtility.HtmlEncode("<html>")  To work with COM objects, you can use the New-Object cmdlet with the -ComObject parameter to create an instance of the COM object. You can then use the methods and properties of the COM object like you would any other .NET object. For example, to work with the Excel COM object, you could use the following code: # create an instance of the Excel COM object$excel = New-Object -ComObject Excel.Application
# make Excel visible
$excel.Visible =$true
# create a new workbook

To work with the Windows API in PowerShell, you can use the Add-Type cmdlet to define a new .NET type that wraps the API function you want to call. You can then call the API function using the .NET type you created.

For example, suppose you want to call the MessageBox function from the user32.dll library. You could use the following code:

# define the MessageBox function as a .NET method
[DllImport("user32.dll")]
public static extern int MessageBox(IntPtr hWnd, string text, string caption, uint type);
"@ -Namespace Win32
# call the MessageBox function
[Win32.MessageBox]::MessageBox([IntPtr]::Zero, "Hello, World!", "Hello", 0) 

This will create a .NET method called MessageBox that wraps the MessageBox function from user32.dll, and then call the function to display a message box.

You can use this same technique to call any function from a Windows DLL. You just need to know the function's name, the DLL it is located in, and its parameters and return type. You can find this information in the documentation for the Windows API or by using tools such as Dependency Walker or Windows API Viewer. These tools can help you find the names and locations of DLLs and functions, as well as the parameters and return types for the functions.

It is also possible to use the .NET Framework's System.Runtime.InteropServices namespace to access the Windows API. This namespace provides classes and methods for calling DLL functions and working with COM objects, and can make it easier to work with the Windows API in .NET languages such as C# and PowerShell.

For example, to call the MessageBox function using the System.Runtime.InteropServices namespace, you could use the following code:

# import the System.Runtime.InteropServices namespace
# call the MessageBox function using the InteropServices namespace
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::CallWindowProc(
[IntPtr]::Zero, "Hello, World!", "Hello", 0) 

This code uses the Marshal class from the System.Runtime.InteropServices namespace to load the user32.dll library, get the address of the MessageBoxA function, and call the function using a delegate.

One of the most frequently posed PowerShell scenario based interview questions, be ready for this conceptual question.

PowerShell allows you to create custom formatting and type extension commands to customize the way objects are displayed and to add custom behavior to .NET types.

To create a custom formatting command, you can create a formatting file that defines the formatting rules for your objects. A formatting file is a PowerShell script with a .ps1xml extension that contains a series of View elements, each of which defines a set of formatting rules for a particular type of object.

For example, suppose you have a custom object type called Person with properties such as Name and Age. You could create a formatting file called Person.format.ps1xml with the following content:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<Configuration>
<ViewDefinitions>
<View>
<Name>Person</Name>
<ViewSelectedBy>
<TypeName>Person</TypeName>
</ViewSelectedBy>
<TableControl>
<Label>Name</Label>
<Label>Age</Label>
<TableRowEntries>
<TableRowEntry>
<TableColumnItems>
<TableColumnItem>
<PropertyName>Name</PropertyName>
</TableColumnItem>
<TableColumnItem>
<PropertyName>Age</PropertyName>
</TableColumnItem>
</TableColumnItems>
</TableRowEntry>
</TableRowEntries>
</TableControl>
</View>
</ViewDefinitions> 

For example, suppose you have a custom object type called Person with properties Name and Age. You can create a custom formatting command to display the object in a specific way by using the following code:

# define the custom formatting command
function Format-Person
{
[CmdletBinding()]
param(
[Parameter(ValueFromPipeline)]
[Person]$InputObject ) process { # return a string that displays the person's name and age return "$($InputObject.Name) ($($InputObject.Age))" } } # register the custom formatting command for the Person object type$pscmdlet.psstandardmembers.DefaultDisplayPropertySet.Clear()
$pscmdlet.psstandardmembers.DefaultDisplayPropertySet.Add((New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSPropertySet('DefaultDisplayPropertySet', [String[]]@('Name', 'Age')))) # create a custom formatter for the Person object type$personFormatter = {
if ($_ -is [Person]) { # use the custom formatting command to format the object return Format-Person$_
}
else
{
# use the default formatting for other object types
return $_ | Format-List } }  To register the custom formatter, you can use the Update-FormatData cmdlet. For example: Update-FormatData -PrependFormatter$personFormatter

This will add the custom formatter to the beginning of the list of formatters, so it will be used before the default formatters.

Now, when you output a Person object to the console or convert it to a string, it will be formatted using the custom formatter. For example:

# create a Person object
$person = [Person]::new("John", 30) # output the Person object to the console$person
# convert the Person object to a string
$person.ToString()  This will display the person's name and age using the custom formatting command. To create a type extension command, you can use the Update-TypeData cmdlet to add methods, properties, and other members to an existing .NET type. For example: # add a method to the System.String type Update-TypeData -TypeName System.String -MemberType ScriptMethod -MemberName Reverse -Value {$this | ForEach-Object {$_} | Sort-Object -Descending } # add a property to the System.String type Update-TypeData -TypeName System.String -Member  In PowerShell, you can create custom views and formatting files to control the way objects are displayed when they are output to the console or when they are converted to strings. To create a custom view, you can use the New-View cmdlet and specify a script block that defines the view's formatting logic. The script block should accept a single input object and return a string or an array of strings that represents the formatted output. For example, suppose you have a custom object type called Person with properties Name and Age. You can create a custom view to display the object in a specific way by using the following code: # define the custom view New-View -Name PersonView -ScriptBlock { # return a string that displays the person's name and age return "$($InputObject.Name) ($($InputObject.Age))" }  To use the custom view, you can pass an object to the Format-Custom cmdlet and specify the view's name as the value for the -View parameter. For example: # create a Person object$person = [Person]::new("John", 30)
# output the Person object using the custom view
Format-Custom -InputObject $person -View PersonView  This will display the person's name and age using the custom view. To create a formatting file, you can use the New-FormatData cmdlet and specify a script block that defines the formatting logic for one or more object types. The script block should accept a single input object and return a string or an array of strings that represents the formatted output. For example, to create a formatting file for the Person object type, you could use the following code: # define the formatting file$formatData = New-FormatData -TypeName Person -ScriptBlock {
# return a string that displays the person's name and age
return "$($InputObject.Name) ($($InputObject.Age))"
}
# save the formatting file to a file
$formatData | Export-FormatData -Path C:\Formatting\PersonFormat.ps1xml  This will create a formatting file called PersonFormat.ps1xml that contains the formatting logic for the Person object type. To use the formatting file, you can import it using the Import-FormatData cmdlet and then pass an object to the Format-Custom cmdlet. For example: # import the formatting file Import-FormatData -Path C:\Formatting\PersonFormat.ps1xml # create a Person object$person = [Person]::new("John", 30)
# output the Person object using the custom formatter
Format-Custom -InputObject 

PowerShell Workflow is a feature of PowerShell that enables you to write and run long-running, repeatable, and resilient workflows using PowerShell. Workflows are sets of instructions that can be run as a single unit, rather than running each instruction individually. They allow you to automate complex and long-running tasks, and they can be run on a schedule or on demand.

Desired State Configuration (DSC) is a declarative configuration management platform in PowerShell that enables you to manage your infrastructure and applications in a predictable and repeatable way. With DSC, you can define the desired configuration of your infrastructure and applications, and then use PowerShell to ensure that the actual configuration conforms to the desired state.

To work with Workflow and DSC in PowerShell, you will need to first install the necessary modules. To install the Workflow and DSC modules, you can use the following command:

Install-Module -Name PowerShellWorkflow, DSC-ResourceKit 

Once the modules are installed, you can use PowerShell Workflow and DSC in your scripts by importing the necessary modules. For example, to import the Workflow and DSC modules, you can use the following commands:

Import-Module PowerShellWorkflow
Import-Module DSC-ResourceKit 

You can then use the Workflow and DSC cmdlets to create and run workflows and to manage your infrastructure and applications. For example, to create a new DSC configuration, you can use the following command:

New-DSCConfiguration -Path C:\MyConfiguration -Force 

And to run a DSC configuration, you can use the following command:

Start-DSCConfiguration -Path C:\MyConfiguration -Wait -Verbose 

You can also use Workflow to create long-running and repeatable workflows. For example, to create a new Workflow, you can use the following command:

workflow MyWorkflow {
# Workflow code goes here
} 

And to run a Workflow, you can use the following command:

MyWorkflow 

It's a General question in PowerShell interview questions for system administrator.

To work with containers in PowerShell, you can use the Docker and Kubernetes modules. These modules allow you to manage and deploy containerized applications using PowerShell.

To install the Docker module, you can use the following command:

Install-Module -Name Docker 

To install the Kubernetes module, you can use the following command:

Install-Module -Name Kubernetes 

Once the modules are installed, you can import them into your PowerShell session using the Import-Module cmdlet. For example, to import the Docker module, you can use the following command:

Import-Module Docker 

And to import the Kubernetes module, you can use the following command:

Import-Module Kubernetes 

With the Docker module, you can manage Docker containers and images, create new containers, and publish container images to a registry. For example, to list all running containers on your system, you can use the following command:

Get-Container | Where-Object { $_.State -eq 'Running' }  With the Kubernetes module, you can manage Kubernetes clusters and deploy containerized applications to them. For example, to create a new deployment in a Kubernetes cluster, you can use the following command: New-KubernetesDeployment -Name my-deployment -Image my-image:latest  This question falls under basic PowerShell automation interview questions as the ARM templates and functions are used for automation of various process via different in built functions. To work with Azure Resource Manager (ARM) templates and Azure Functions in PowerShell, you will need to install the Azure PowerShell module. You can install the Azure PowerShell module by running the following command: Install-Module -Name AzureRM  Once the module is installed, you can import it into your PowerShell session using the Import-Module cmdlet. For example, to import the Azure PowerShell module, you can use the following command: Import-Module AzureRM  To authenticate to your Azure account, you can use the Login-AzureRmAccount cmdlet. This cmdlet will prompt you to enter your Azure credentials. Login-AzureRmAccount  With the Azure PowerShell module, you can use ARM templates to deploy and manage Azure resources. An ARM template is a JSON file that defines the infrastructure and configurations for an Azure solution. To deploy an ARM template, you can use the New-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment cmdlet. For example, to deploy an ARM template stored in a file named template.json, you can use the following command: New-AzureRmResourceGroupDeployment -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroup -TemplateFile template.json  You can also use the Azure PowerShell module to manage Azure Functions. Azure Functions is a serverless compute service that enables you to run code on-demand without having to explicitly provision or manage infrastructure. To create a new Azure Function, you can use the New-AzureRmFunctionApp cmdlet. For example, to create a new Azure Function named myfunction in the resource group myResourceGroup, you can use the following command: New-AzureRmFunctionApp -Name myfunction -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroup -StorageAccountName mystorageaccount -Location westus  Azure DevOps is a set of development tools, services, and features that enable teams to plan, develop, deliver, and maintain software more efficiently. You can use PowerShell to automate various tasks in Azure DevOps, such as creating and managing work items, managing and building code, and deploying applications. To work with Azure DevOps in PowerShell, you will need to install the Azure DevOps PowerShell module. You can install the Azure DevOps PowerShell module by running the following command: Install-Module -Name AzureDevOps  Once the module is installed, you can import it into your PowerShell session using the Import-Module cmdlet. For example, to import the Azure DevOps PowerShell module, you can use the following command: Import-Module AzureDevOps  To authenticate to your Azure DevOps account, you can use the Connect-AzureDevOps cmdlet. This cmdlet will prompt you to enter your Azure DevOps credentials. Connect-AzureDevOps  With the Azure DevOps PowerShell module, you can use cmdlets to manage various aspects of your Azure DevOps projects. For example, you can use the New-AzureDevOpsWorkItem cmdlet to create a new work item, such as a bug or a task. New-AzureDevOpsWorkItem -Title 'My work item' -WorkItemType 'Task'  You can also use the Azure DevOps PowerShell module to manage and build code in your Azure DevOps repositories. For example, you can use the Get-AzureDevOpsCommit cmdlet to retrieve a list of commits in a repository. Get-AzureDevOpsCommit -RepositoryName 'MyRepo'  A Cmdlet Provider is a custom component in PowerShell that provides a set of cmdlets for working with a particular data store or resource. Cmdlet Providers are implemented as Windows PowerShell snap-ins or as Windows PowerShell modules. To create a custom Cmdlet Provider, you will need to implement a set of cmdlets and a provider base class that implements the required functionality for the cmdlets. The provider base class can be either a PSSnapIn or a module. Once you have implemented your Cmdlet Provider, you can use the Export-ModuleMember cmdlet to specify which cmdlets and functions in your module should be exported, and therefore made available to the user. For example, to export a cmdlet named Get-Foo from your module, you can use the following command: Export-ModuleMember -Function Get-Foo  To use your custom Cmdlet Provider, you can import it into your PowerShell session using the Import-Module cmdlet. A Navigation Cmdlet is a cmdlet that enables you to navigate a hierarchical data store or resource, such as a file system or registry. Navigation Cmdlets are implemented as Cmdlet Providers, and they provide a set of cmdlets for navigating and managing the data store or resource. To create a custom Navigation Cmdlet, you will need to implement a Cmdlet Provider as described above, and then define the cmdlets that enable navigation and management of the data store or resource. For example, to create a Navigation Cmdlet that enables you to navigate a custom data store, you might implement cmdlets such as Get-ChildItem, Set-Location, and New-Item. Once you have implemented your Navigation Cmdlet, you can use it in your PowerShell scripts and sessions by importing the Cmdlet Provider module. To create a custom remoting endpoint in PowerShell, you can use the New-PSSessionConfigurationFile cmdlet to create a session configuration file that defines the custom endpoint. The session configuration file is an XML file that specifies the session type (e.g., RestrictedRemoteServer, RestrictedLocalServer), the execution policies, and other settings for the endpoint. Here's an example of how you can create a custom endpoint: First, create a session configuration file using the New-PSSessionConfigurationFile cmdlet. For example: New-PSSessionConfigurationFile -Path C:\CustomEndpoint\MyEndpoint.pssc -SessionType RestrictedRemoteServer -LanguageMode NoLanguage  This creates a new session configuration file called "MyEndpoint.pssc" at the specified path. The SessionType parameter specifies the type of session to create (in this case, a restricted remote server session), and the LanguageMode parameter specifies the language mode for the session (in this case, "NoLanguage", which means that no language features will be available). Next, register the session configuration file using the Register-PSSessionConfiguration cmdlet. For example: Register-PSSessionConfiguration -Path C:\CustomEndpoint\MyEndpoint.pssc -Name "MyEndpoint"  This registers the session configuration file and assigns it the name "MyEndpoint". To create a session using the custom endpoint, use the New-PSSession cmdlet and specify the name of the endpoint using the ConfigurationName parameter. For example: New-PSSession -ConfigurationName "MyEndpoint" -ComputerName Server01  This creates a new session using the "MyEndpoint" endpoint and connects to the computer "Server01". You can also use the Enter-PSSession cmdlet to connect to an existing session, or the Invoke-Command cmdlet to run a command remotely on a target computer using a custom endpoint. To work with Windows performance counters in PowerShell, you can use the Get-Counter cmdlet to retrieve counter data from local or remote computers. The Get-Counter cmdlet accepts a Counter parameter, which specifies the path of the performance counter you want to retrieve data for. Here's an example of how you can use Get-Counter to retrieve the current value of the "Processor(_Total)% Processor Time" counter on the local computer: Get-Counter -Counter "\Processor(_Total)% Processor Time"  You can also specify a SampleInterval and MaxSamples parameter to specify the sampling interval and maximum number of samples to retrieve, respectively. To work with Windows Event Tracing (ETW), you can use the Get-WinEvent cmdlet to retrieve events from event logs or event trace logs on local or remote computers. The Get-WinEvent cmdlet accepts a LogName parameter, which specifies the name of the event log or trace log to retrieve events from, and a FilterXPath parameter, which allows you to filter the events based on certain criteria. Here's an example of how you can use Get-WinEvent to retrieve all error events from the "Application" event log on the local computer: Get-WinEvent -LogName "Application" -FilterXPath "*[System[(Level=2)]]"  Windows Management Framework (WMF) is a collection of technologies that includes Windows PowerShell and its associated modules, along with other tools and management frameworks for Windows. You can use PowerShell to install and manage WMF on your Windows systems. To check the version of WMF that is installed on a system, you can use the$PSVersionTable automatic variable. This variable contains a table of version information for the current version of PowerShell. For example:

$PSVersionTable  To check the version of a specific module, you can use the Get-Module cmdlet and specify the name of the module. For example: Get-Module -Name AzureRM  To install a new version of WMF, you can use the Install-WindowsFeature cmdlet. For example, to install WMF 5.1 on a Windows Server 2016 system, you can use the following command: Install-WindowsFeature -Name "WindowsPowerShell" -IncludeAllSubFeature -IncludeManagementTools  The PowerShell Gallery is an online repository of PowerShell modules and scripts that you can use to find and install additional functionality for PowerShell. To use the PowerShell Gallery, you will need to have an internet connection and the PowerShellGet module installed on your system. To install the PowerShellGet module, you can use the Install-Module cmdlet. For example: Install-Module -Name PowerShellGet  Once you have the PowerShellGet module installed, you can use the Find-Module cmdlet to search the PowerShell Gallery for modules that meet certain criteria. For example, to search for all modules that contain the word "Azure" in the name or description, you can use the following command: Find-Module -Name "*Azure*"  To install a module from the PowerShell Gallery, you can use the Install-Module cmdlet and specify the name of the module. For example: Install-Module -Name AzureRM  I hope this helps! Let me know if you have any other questions. Certain type of PowerShell interview questions for programming are asked in different interviews and this question is based on the same. In PowerShell, you can create custom language constructs and syntaxes by defining custom cmdlets, functions, or scripts. Custom cmdlets are compiled .NET classes that are designed to be called from PowerShell. To create a custom cmdlet, you need to create a .NET class that derives from the System.Management.Automation.Cmdlet base class, and decorate the class with the CmdletAttribute attribute. The CmdletAttribute attribute specifies the name of the cmdlet, as well as other metadata such as the verb and noun for the cmdlet name. Here's an example of a simple custom cmdlet that writes a message to the console: using System.Management.Automation; namespace MyCmdlets { [Cmdlet(VerbsCommunications.Write, "Message")] public class WriteMessageCmdlet : Cmdlet { [Parameter(Mandatory = true)] public string Text { get; set; } protected override void ProcessRecord() { WriteObject(Text); } } }  To use the custom cmdlet, you can import the assembly containing the cmdlet and then use the cmdlet name to call it. For example: Import-Module MyCmdlets.dll Write-Message -Text "Hello, World!"  Custom functions are similar to cmdlets, but they are implemented as scripts rather than compiled .NET classes. To create a custom function, you can define a script block that contains the code for the function, and then use the function keyword to define the function and specify the function name and parameter list. Here's an example of a simple custom function that adds two numbers: function Add-Numbers([int]$x, [int]$y) { return$x + $y }  To use the custom function, you can simply call it by its name and pass the required parameters. For example: Add-Numbers -x 3 -y 4  In addition to cmdlets and functions, you can also create custom syntaxes in PowerShell by using script blocks and the Invoke-Expression cmdlet. For example, you can create a custom "for" loop syntax by defining a script block that contains the loop logic, and then using the Invoke-Expression cmdlet to execute the script block. Here's an example of a custom "for" loop syntax that counts from 1 to 10: $start = 1
$end = 10 Invoke-Expression { for ($i = $using:start;$i -le $using:end;$i++)
{
Write-Output $i } }  To work with Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) in PowerShell, you can use the Show-Command cmdlet to display a GUI for a cmdlet or function, or you can use the Out-GridView cmdlet to display tabular data in a GUI window. The Show-Command cmdlet displays a GUI that allows you to interactively enter cmdlet parameters and view the cmdlet's help. To use Show-Command, you can simply specify the name of the cmdlet or function you want to display the GUI for. For example: Show-Command Get-Process  The Out-GridView cmdlet displays tabular data in a GUI window that allows you to sort and filter the data. To use Out-GridView, you can pipe the output of a cmdlet or function to Out-GridView. For example: Get-Process | Out-GridView  You can also use the Add-Type cmdlet to define custom .NET classes and create GUI windows using Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) or Windows Forms. For example, to create a simple WPF window, you can use the following code: Add-Type -AssemblyName PresentationFramework$window = New-Object System.Windows.Window
$window.Title = "My Window"$window.Width = 400
$window.Height = 300$window.ShowDialog() 

This type of question is asked in PowerShell scenario-based interview questions and very well-known questions in Interviews. Please keep an eye on these types.

To work with Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) in PowerShell, you can use the New-WebServiceProxy cmdlet to create a proxy for a WCF service and the Invoke-WebRequest cmdlet to send HTTP requests to the service.

The New-WebServiceProxy cmdlet creates a .NET object that represents a proxy for a WCF service, allowing you to call the service's methods as if they were local methods. To use New-WebServiceProxy, you need to specify the URL of the WCF service's .svc file. For example:

$proxy = New-WebServiceProxy -Uri "http://localhost/MyService.svc"  The Invoke-WebRequest cmdlet sends an HTTP request to a specified URL and returns the response. You can use Invoke-WebRequest to send a variety of HTTP requests, including GET, POST, and PUT. For example, to send a GET request to a WCF service, you can use the following command: Invoke-WebRequest -Uri "http://localhost/MyService.svc/GetData"  To work with Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) in PowerShell, you can use the New-WFWorkflow cmdlet to create a new workflow, and the Start-WFWorkflow cmdlet to start a workflow. The New-WFWorkflow cmdlet creates a new workflow definition object that represents a workflow. To use New-WFWorkflow, you need to specify the path to a workflow definition file or the workflow definition itself. For example: $workflow = New-WFWorkflow -DefinitionPath "C:\Workflows\MyWorkflow.xaml" 

The Start-WFWorkflow cmdlet starts a workflow instance based on a workflow definition. To use Start-WFWorkflow, you need to specify the workflow definition object and any input arguments for the workflow. For example:

Start-WFWorkflow -Workflow $workflow -InputArguments @{"Argument1"="Value1";"Argument2"="Value2"}  To work with the Windows Runtime (WinRT) and Windows Store apps in PowerShell, you can use the Get-AppxPackage cmdlet to retrieve information about installed apps, and the Add-AppxPackage and Remove-AppxPackage cmdlets to install and uninstall apps. The Get-AppxPackage cmdlet retrieves information about installed apps on a system. You can use the Name parameter to specify the name of an app, or you can use the AllUsers parameter to retrieve information about apps installed for all users. For example: Get-AppxPackage -Name "Microsoft.WindowsCalculator" Get-AppxPackage -AllUsers  The Add-AppxPackage cmdlet installs an app from a package file. You can use the Path parameter to specify the path to the package file and the DependencyPath parameter to specify the path to any dependency packages. For example: Add-AppxPackage -Path "C:\Apps\MyApp.appx" -DependencyPath "C:\Apps\MyApp_Dependencies"  The Remove-AppxPackage cmdlet uninstalls an app from a system. You can use the Name parameter to specify the name of the app to uninstall. For example: Remove-AppxPackage -Name "Microsoft.WindowsCalculator"  You can also use the Get-AppxProvisionedPackage cmdlet to retrieve information about provisioned (pre-installed) apps and the Add-AppxProvisionedPackage and Remove-AppxProvisionedPackage cmdlets to install and uninstall provisioned apps. Generally, these questions are asked for PowerShell interview questions for experienced candidates. To work with .NET Core and .NET 5 in PowerShell, you can use the Add-Type cmdlet to define custom .NET classes and types and the New-Object cmdlet to create instances of .NET objects. The Add-Type cmdlet allows you to define custom .NET classes and types by specifying the .NET code in a script block or by specifying the path to a .NET assembly. For example, to define a simple .NET class in PowerShell, you can use the following code: Add-Type -TypeDefinition @" public class MyClass { public string Name { get; set; } public int Age { get; set; } } "@  The New-Object cmdlet allows you to create an instance of a .NET object by specifying the object's type and any constructor arguments. For example, to create an instance of the MyClass object defined above, you can use the following code: $obj = New-Object MyClass -ArgumentList "John", 30 `

You can also use the Get-ChildItem cmdlet to enumerate .NET assemblies in the GAC (Global Assembly Cache) or in a specific directory and the Get-Type cmdlet to retrieve information about a .NET type.

PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and scripting language. PowerShell Core is the open-source, cross-platform version of PowerShell that is available for Windows, Linux, and macOS.

To use PowerShell Core, you need to install it on your system. To do this on Windows, you can download the MSI installer from the PowerShell GitHub releases page and run it to install PowerShell. On Linux and macOS, you can use a package manager like apt-get, yum, or Homebrew to install PowerShell.

Once PowerShell Core is installed, you can open a PowerShell terminal by typing "powershell" in the command prompt or terminal window. You can then use PowerShell commands to manage and automate tasks on your system.

One of the key features of PowerShell Core is its cross-platform compatibility. This means that you can use the same set of PowerShell commands and scripts on any supported platform, including Windows, Linux, and macOS. This can be useful for managing and automating tasks on systems that are running different operating systems.

To use PowerShell scripts and commands on a different platform, you will need to ensure that the script or command is compatible with that platform. Some commands and features that are specific to Windows may not be available on other platforms, so you may need to modify your scripts or commands to account for this.

How to Prepare for a PowerShell Interview?

Here are some steps you can take to prepare for a PowerShell interview:

• Review the basics of PowerShell syntax and concepts, such as variables, loops, and conditional statements.
• Familiarize yourself with common cmdlets and how they are used.
• Practice writing scripts to solve specific problems or accomplish specific tasks. This will help you develop your skills and become more comfortable with the language.
• Review the documentation for the technologies you will be working with, such as Active Directory, Exchange, or SQL Server.
• Brush up on your understanding of regular expressions and how they are used in PowerShell.
• Review the documentation for the PowerShell ISE and familiarize yourself with its debugging tools.
• Practice explaining your scripts and the logic behind them. Being able to clearly articulate your thought process will be important in the interview.

• Azure DevOps Engineer – PowerShell
• PowerShell Developer
• Site Reliability Engineer
• Windows Application Developer
• Windows Service & Console App Developer
• PowerShell Script Developer
• PowerShell Automation Developer
• PowerShell Automation Engineer
• .net Developer – PowerShell
• IT System Automation Engineer

Here are the top companies that are recruiting for PowerShell:

• Infosys Limited
• Accenture
• EY (Ernst and Young)
• Deloitte
• Microsoft
• Unisys
• Wells Fargo
• Barclays
• Hewlett Packard Enterprise
• UBS
• VMware

Top PowerShell Interview Tips and Tricks

Here are some tips and tricks for preparing for a PowerShell interview:

• Familiarize yourself with the basics of PowerShell, including common cmdlets, syntax, and concepts like the pipeline.
• Practice writing scripts to solve specific problems or automate tasks. This will help you get comfortable with the PowerShell language and demonstrate your skills to the interviewer.
• Understand the differences between PowerShell Core and the full version of PowerShell, and be able to explain when you might use one over the other.
• Be familiar with common tools and utilities for working with PowerShell, such as the Integrated Scripting Environment (ISE) and Visual Studio Code.
• Understand how to use PowerShell to work with other technologies and platforms, such as Active Directory, Azure, and Linux.
• Know how to troubleshoot problems and debug scripts. This may involve using command-line options like -Debug and -ErrorAction, as well as using tools like the Get-Error cmdlet.
• Be prepared to discuss your experience working with PowerShell in a production environment, including any challenges you faced and how you overcame them.
• Consider reviewing online resources, such as Microsoft documentation and online tutorials, to refresh your knowledge and learn about new features and capabilities in PowerShell.
• Practice answering common interview questions related to PowerShell, such as "What is PowerShell and what can it be used for?", "How do you use variables in PowerShell?" and "How do you troubleshoot a PowerShell script that is not working as expected?"

What to Expect in a PowerShell Interview?

Here are some common types of questions that might be asked in a PowerShell interview:

• Describe your experience with PowerShell and how you have used it in the past. Expect some of the PowerShell basic interview questions at the start of the interview.
• During a PowerShell interview, you can expect to be asked questions about your experience with PowerShell and your ability to solve problems using the language.
• PowerShell scripting interview questions to script to accomplish a specific task, such as retrieving information from a remote server or automating a workflow. PowerShell automation interview questions are very common given the type of tool this is.
• Explain how the PowerShell pipeline works and give an example of how you have used it.
• Describe how you have used regular expressions in PowerShell. These form the PowerShell interview questions for beginners.
• Explain how you have used PowerShell to work with different technologies, such as Active Directory, Exchange, or SQL Server.
• Describe any custom cmdlets or functions that you have created in PowerShell.
• It is also a good idea to be familiar with the basic syntax and concepts of PowerShell, such as variables, loops, and conditional statements.

Summary

There are countless opportunities accessible from a variety of reliable companies worldwide. Approximately 30% of the market, according to research, is taken up by PowerShell. Since 2015, its market has started to expand dramatically. According to PayScale, the typical salary for a shell programming talent is \$90,500. If you want to build your PowerShell Engineer or PowerShell Automation Developer career, these interview questions would be a great place to start.