Mean Stack Interview Questions & Answers for 2024

MEAN Stack is an open-source technology stack used to create efficient and dynamic web apps. This is one of the most popular tech stacks among developers and enthusiasts that are keen on developing a smoother experience for users. Whether you are a beginner or an intermediate or an experienced web developer, this guide on MEAN stack interview questions and answers will help you in increasing your confidence and knowledge of MEAN Stack. The questions are divided into various categories such as MEAN stack questions for freshers, interview questions for intermediates and then questions for advanced roles. The guide also provides step-by-step explanations for each question, which will help you to understand the concepts in detail. With this guide to interview questions, you can be confident that you will clear most MEAN stack interviews.

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Beginner

MEAN stack is an open-source technology, made up of four JavaScript-based technologies that help in the development of web apps and dynamic websites that are highly efficient and available. 

MEAN is the abbreviation for 

  • MongoDB - The Database used to store data in document form 
  • ExpressJS - The middleware that facilitates and smoothens the back-end development 
  • AngularJS - An SPA (Single Page Application) power-packed frontend 
  • Node.js - Single-Threaded Server-side scripting utilized to construct adaptable projects. 

Though there are many advantages of using the MEAN stack in your application from it being free and open-source to it being one of the best stacks for building dynamic websites and web applications. It is always best to point out the advantages that make it stand out from others, therefore a good set of points to answer this question is as below. 

The advantages of using the MEAN Stack are: 

  • Isomorphic code: The use of JavaScript throughout the project makes the code isomorphic i.e. the backend and frontend both are implemented using the same tech and therefore become easy to go back and forth. 
  • Seamless-Communication: JSON is used both in AngularJS and Node JS. Even MongoDB is a component-based relational database that allows you to store documents in JSON format. This makes the communication between multiple components of the application seamless. 
  • Open Source: All the technologies used in MEAN Stack are open source and are available for free, therefore, reducing the development cost and helping cap the development approach using useful libraries and public repositories available online. 
  • Cloud Compatible: In case your project requires implementing cloud functionalities within the app, MongoDB is a good option to choose. Thus making MEAN a profitable share to have, at the same time reducing the cost of disk space. 
  • Fast And Reusable: The open and non-blocking architecture of Node.js makes it very fast. Another component of MEAN, Angular, is an open-source JavaScript framework that makes it easy to test, maintain, and reuse code.

This is one of the most frequently asked MEAN Stack Interview Questions. Here is how to frame and answer for this.

Although the MERN stack and the MEAN stack are both popular technology stacks for building web applications. They both utilize JavaScript for both the front end and backend of the application, but there are some key differences between the two. To start we will first define what they stand for and then get into the difference between them.

MERN stands for MongoDB, Express, React, and Node.js. It uses MongoDB as the database, Expresses as the server-side framework, Reacts as the frontend framework, and Node.js as the runtime environment.

MEAN stands for MongoDB, Express, Angular, and Node.js. It uses MongoDB as the database, Express as the server-side framework, Angular as the frontend framework, and Node.js as the runtime environment.

One key difference between the two is the frontend framework. MERN uses React, which is a JavaScript library for building user interfaces, while MEAN uses Angular, which is a full-featured frontend framework.

This should be answered in multiple points, keeping in mind the power of this technology stack becomes advantageous to web applications and their development. 

  • The purpose of using the MEAN stack is to create a full-stack web application that is fast, efficient, and easy to maintain 
  • The MEAN stack is based on the JavaScript language, which makes it easy to develop and deploy web applications.  
  • The stack provides a complete development environment for web applications, assisting developers to create dynamic, data-driven web applications with minimal effort.  
  • Additionally, the MEAN stack enables developers to rapidly develop, test, and deploy full-stack web applications. 

It is important to understand that this question will help the interviewer understand what steps you will take to cover the scenarios that could prove fatal in the future if went unnoticed.  

Here are the steps I would take to review a team member's code: 

  1. First, I would read through the code to get a general understanding of what it is trying to accomplish. 
  2. Next, I would run the code to see if it produces the expected output. 
  3. I would then carefully review the code, looking for any bugs or areas that could be improved. 
  4. As I review the code, I would make notes on any issues I find or suggestions for improvement. 
  5. After completing my review, I would discuss my findings with the team member and offer any suggestions or feedback. 
  6. Finally, I would work with the team member to address any issues or make any necessary changes to the code.

It is important to understand that JavaScript is a popular programming language that is widely used for building web applications. It is also the programming language that will be used throughout MEAN Stack and therefore it is important to know about it. 

Here are some advantages of using JavaScript: 

  • Versatility: JavaScript can be used for a wide variety of purposes, including frontend and backend development, mobile app development, and game development. 
  • Popularity: JavaScript is one of the most popular programming languages, which means there is a large and active developer community, as well as a wealth of resources and libraries available. 
  • Easy to learn: JavaScript is relatively easy to learn, especially for developers who are already familiar with other programming languages. 
  • Interoperability: JavaScript can be used alongside other technologies, such as HTML and CSS, to build modern web applications. 

However, there are also some disadvantages to consider when using JavaScript: 

  • Lack of strict typing: JavaScript is a dynamically-typed language, which means it does not enforce strict type rules. This can make it easier to write code, but it can also lead to bugs and issues if not used carefully. 
  • Performance issues: JavaScript can be slower than other programming languages when it comes to certain types of tasks, such as complex mathematical operations. 
  • Security vulnerabilities: JavaScript code can be vulnerable to security issues if it is not written and managed carefully. 
  • Browser compatibility: Different browsers can interpret JavaScript code differently, which can lead to compatibility issues. 

A staple in MEAN Stack Interview Questions for freshers, be prepared to answer this one. Here is how you should proceed with the answer -

In JavaScript, there are a few key data types that are used to represent different kinds of values: 

  • Number: This data type represents numeric values. It can include both integers (whole numbers) and floating-point numbers (numbers with decimal points). 
  • String: This data type represents text values. Strings are written in quotation marks, either single or double. 
  • Boolean: This data type represents logical values, either true or false. 
  • Null: This data type represents an absence of a value. 
  • Undefined: This data type represents a value that has not been assigned a value yet. 
  • Object: This data type represents a collection of key-value pairs. Objects can be used to store complex data structures, such as arrays, sets, and maps. 
  • Symbol: This data type represents a unique and immutable value. Symbols are often used to create unique object properties. 

In addition to these basic data types, JavaScript also has a few special data types, such as functions and arrays, which are used to represent more complex values. 

In JavaScript, scope refers to the accessibility of variables and other identifiers within a program. There are two main types of scope in JavaScript: global scope and local scope. 

Global scope refers to the visibility of variables and identifiers throughout the entire program. Any variables or functions that are defined outside of a function are considered to be in the global scope, and they can be accessed from anywhere in the program. 

Local scope, on the other hand, refers to the visibility of variables and identifiers within a specific block of code, such as within a function.  

Variables and functions that are defined within a function are only visible within that function and are not accessible from outside of it. 

JavaScript also supports block-level scoping, which means that variables defined within a block of code (such as within a for loop or an if statement) is only visible within that block. 

This may seem like a basic question but has no experience bias when it comes to interviews, therefore it is important to understand when and where these variables are to be used.

let and var are both used to declare variables in JavaScript. The main difference between the two is that let is block-scoped, while var is function-scoped. This means that a variable declared with let is only accessible within the block of code in which it is defined, while a variable declared with var is accessible within the entire function in which it is defined.

const` is also used to declare variables in JavaScript, but it is used to declare variables that cannot be reassigned. This means that once a value has been assigned to a const variable, it cannot be changed. const variables are also block-scoped, just like let variables.

In general, it is recommended to use const by default, and only use let if you need to reassign the value of a variable. var should generally be avoided, as it can lead to confusing and hard-to-debug code.

In JavaScript, == is the equality operator and === is the strict equality operator. They are used to compare the values of two expressions to determine whether they are equal or not. 

The main difference between the two operators is that == performs type coercion, while === does not. This means that == will automatically convert the operands to the same type before making the comparison, while === will only return true if the operands are of the same type and have the same value. 

e.g. 

console.log(1 == '1'); // true 
console.log(1 === '1'); // false 

REPL stands for Read-Eval-Print-Loop. It is a command-line interface that allows you to enter JavaScript commands and see the results immediately. 

In Node.js, the REPL (short for Read-Eval-Print-Loop) is a command-line interface that allows you to run JavaScript code directly from the terminal. It is useful for testing small snippets of code and exploring the language and its API. 

To start the REPL in Node.js, you can simply run the node command in your terminal: 

node

This will start the REPL and you will see a > prompt, which indicates that the REPL is ready to accept your input. You can then enter any valid JavaScript code, and the REPL will execute it and print the result.

Node.js is a JavaScript runtime built on Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine that allows you to run JavaScript on the server side. It allows you to build scalable network applications using JavaScript on the other hand, 

AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a technique used to make requests to a server and update a web page asynchronously without reloading the page. It allows you to send and receive data from a server in the background, making it possible to create interactive, dynamic web applications.

jQuery is a JavaScript library that simplifies DOM manipulation, event handling, and AJAX interactions. It provides a set of APIs that make it easy to work with the DOM. 

REST (Representational State Transfer) APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) are a set of rules that define how web services communicate with each other. They allow different systems to interact with each other in a standardized way, using HTTP methods (such as GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE) to send and receive data.

REST APIs are designed to be lightweight, flexible, and scalable, making them a popular choice for building modern web applications and APIs. They are based on the architectural principles of the World Wide Web and use the HTTP protocol to exchange data between systems.

To use a REST API, you send an HTTP request to the API server, and the server returns an HTTP response. The response may contain data in a variety of formats, such as JSON or XML.

REST APIs are a powerful tool for building modern web applications. 

Expect to come across this popular question in the most common MEAN Stack Developer Interview Questions. You can proceed for the answer as stated below.

Dependency injection (DI) is a design pattern that involves injecting an object with the dependencies it needs, rather than creating them directly. This allows for greater flexibility and modularity in software design, as it allows components to be easily swapped out and tested independently of one another. 

Here is an example of how dependency injection might be used in TypeScript: 

// A service that fetches data from an API 
class DataService { 
constructor(private apiClient: APIClient) {} 
async fetchData(): Promise<Data> { 
return this.apiClient.fetch('/data'); 
} 
} 
// An implementation of the API client that uses fetch 
class FetchAPIClient implements APIClient { 
async fetch(url: string): Promise<Response> { 
return fetch(url); 
} 
} 
// Inject the FetchAPIClient into a new instance of the DataService 
const dataService = new DataService(new FetchAPIClient()); 

In Node.js, a callback is a function that is passed as an argument to another function and is executed after the function has been completed. Callbacks are a common pattern in Node.js, as many of the built-in APIs use asynchronous functions that rely on callbacks to signal when their work is complete. 

Here is an example of a simple callback in Node.js: 

function doWork(callback) { 
// Do some work 
console.log('Doing work'); 
// Call the callback function 
callback(); 
} 
doWork(function() { 
console.log('Work is complete'); 
}); 

Node.js is a runtime environment built on top of the Chrome V8 JavaScript engine used for executing JavaScript code outside of a web browser. It allows you to use JavaScript to build command-line tools and server-side applications. Node.js uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model, which makes it lightweight and efficient for building scalable network applications.

AngularJS was a JavaScript framework for building single-page web applications. It provides a set of tools and libraries for building client-side applications with a rich user interface.

While Node.js and AngularJS are both built with JavaScript and can be used to build web applications, they serve different purposes. Node.js is used for building server-side applications, while AngularJS is used for building client-side applications.

Event-driven programming is a programming paradigm in which the flow of a program is determined by external events, such as user actions, data arrival, or the occurrence of a particular condition. The program sets up event listeners that wait for certain events to occur and executes an event handler function when the event occurs. This allows the program to respond to events as they happen, rather than following a predetermined sequence of instructions.

Single-page applications (SPAs) are web applications that load a single HTML page and then dynamically update the page's content as the user interacts with the app. They do not need to load new HTML pages to display new content, as the content is generated dynamically using JavaScript. This allows SPAs to provide a fast and seamless user experience, as the app does not need to reload the page every time the user navigates to a new section or performs an action.

In Angular, decorators are functions that modify the behavior of a class, method, or property. They are a way to add additional metadata to a class or its members and can be used to extend the behavior of the class in a declarative way. Decorators are a feature of TypeScript and are implemented using a special syntax that begins with an @ symbol. 

Here is an example of a decorator in Angular: 

@Component({ 
selector: 'app-root', 
templateUrl: './app.component.html', 
styleUrls: ['./app.component.css'] 
}) 
export class AppComponent { 
// component logic goes here 
} 

Data binding is a technique that enables users to interact with and manipulate elements on a web page using a web browser. It involves using dynamic HTML and does not require advanced programming skills. This technique is commonly used in web pages that have interactive features, such as forms, tutorials, games, and calculators. Data binding allows for the gradual display of a web page, making it convenient for pages with a large amount of data. It can also be used to link data from a source to an HTML element, allowing the data to be updated in real-time as the user interacts with the page.

NgModules are an important concept in Angular that help to organize and structure an application. They serve as containers for a block of code and help to define the boundaries of an application domain or workflow. The @NgModule decorator is used to define an NgModule, and it takes a metadata object that describes how to compile the template of a component and generate an injector at runtime. This metadata object also identifies the components, directives, and pipes that are part of the module, and allows some of them to be made public through the export property, so that they can be used by other components in the application.

TypeScript is a programming language developed and maintained by Microsoft. It is a typed superset of JavaScript that compiles plain JavaScript, making it easier to write and maintain large-scale applications. TypeScript adds features to JavaScript such as static typing, classes, and interfaces, which can help make code more predictable and easier to debug. It is often used in conjunction with other frameworks, such as Angular, and is a popular choice for building large-scale applications due to its support for object-oriented programming and its ability to catch type-related errors during development. TypeScript is also highly extensible, allowing developers to write their types and interfaces, and to use third-party type definitions to access the types of external libraries.

Static typing is a type of type checking in which the type of a value is checked at compile-time, rather than at runtime. In a statically typed language, variables and expressions are assigned a specific type, and the type of a value must be compatible with the type of the variable or expression it is being assigned to. This can help catch type-related errors during development and can also make it easier to understand and maintain code by providing more information about the types of values being used.

Static typing can be particularly useful in large-scale applications, where the codebase may be complex and have many dependencies. By explicitly declaring the types of values, it can be easier to understand how the different parts of the application fit together and how they depend on one another. It can also help to prevent unintended type-related issues from arising at runtime, which can be difficult to debug and fix.

In TypeScript, you can declare a type by using the type keyword followed by the name of the type, and then the type's structure. Here is an example of a type that represents a point in two-dimensional space: 

type Point = { 
x: number; 
y: number; 
} 

To use this type, you can create a variable of type Point and assign it an object that has x and y properties: 

let p: Point = { x: 0, y: }; 

In addition to object types, you can also use basic types such as numbers, strings, and boolean in TypeScript. For example: 

let x: number = 0; 
let s: string = 'hello'; 
let b: boolean = true; 

TypeScript's type system ensures that values have the expected types at compile time, therefore, helping catch type-related errors before your code is even run. 

One way to handle type compatibility in TypeScript is to use type assertions. A type assertion is a way to override the inferred type of a value and specify a type for it explicitly. You can use type assertions by using the as operator and specifying the desired type. 

For example, consider the following code: 

let x = 'hello'; 
// Assert that x is a string 
let y = x as string; 

In this example, the inferred type of x is a string, but we use a type assertion to explicitly specify that it is a string as well. 

Intermediate

Though both Promises and Observables are used to bring in asynchronicity in a program, they work distinctly. Briefly, the difference is that Promises are a representation of 1 future value whereas, Observables are a representation of a possibly infinite amount of values. 

That means Promises will trigger the fetching of that value immediately upon creation. Observables will only start producing values when you subscribe to them. 

Another Big difference is that Promises are designed to represent AJAX calls whereas, Observables are designed to represent anything: events, data from databases, data from ajax calls, etc. 

Routing in ExpressJS is used to subdivide and organize the web application into multiple mini-applications each having its functionality. It provides more functionality by subdividing the web application rather than including all of the functionality on a single page. 

These mini-applications combine to form a web application. Each route in Express responds to a client request to a particular route/endpoint and an HTTP request method (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, UPDATE, and so on). Each route refers to the different URLs on the website. 

The route method is derived from one of the HTTP methods and is attached to an instance of the express class. There is a method for every HTTP verb, the most commonly used ones are below. 

  • GET .get() 
  • POST .post() 
  • PUT .put() 
  • DELETE .delete() 
  • PATCH .patch() 

Express Router is used to define mini-applications in Express so that each endpoint/route can be dealt with in more detail. So, first, we will need to include express in our application. Then we have 2 methods for defining routes in ExpressJS.

In Angular, routing is the process of linking a specific URL to a component or a set of components. It allows you to navigate between different views in your application and maintain the application's state as you move from one view to another. 

To set up routing in an Angular application, you need to import the Routes and RouterModule modules from the @angular/router library, define an array of routes, and then configure the router with the routes using the RouterModule.forRoot method. 

Here is an example of how you might set up routing in an Angular application: 

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core'; 
import { RoutesRouterModule } from '@angular/router'; 
import { HomeComponent } from './home/home.component'; 
import { AboutComponent } from './about/about.component'; 
const routes: Routes = [ 
{ path: '', componentHomeComponent }, 
{ path: 'about', componentAboutComponent }, 
]; 
@NgModule({ 
imports: [RouterModule.forRoot(routes)], 
exports: [RouterModule] 
}) 
export class AppRoutingModule { } 

Mongoose is an object modeling tool for MongoDB, a popular NoSQL database. It provides a simple, schema-based solution for modeling your application data and includes built-in type casting, validation, query building, and business logic hooks. Mongoose allows you to define models for your data and then provides a simple API for creating, reading, updating, and deleting documents in your MongoDB collections. It is designed to work with Node.js and is often used in server-side applications to provide a layer of abstraction over the underlying MongoDB database.

It's no surprise that concepts related to this one pop up often in MEAN Stack coding test.

In Express.js, route handlers are functions that are executed when a request is made to a specific route. These functions can accept a variety of arguments that provide information about the request and the response. 

Here are some of the arguments that are commonly available to Express.js route handlers: 

  • req (request): This is an object that represents the incoming HTTP request. It contains information about the request, such as the HTTP method, the URL, the headers, and the body of the request. 
  • res (response): This is an object that represents the outgoing HTTP response. It provides methods for setting the status code, the headers, and the body of the response, and for sending the response back to the client. 
  • next: This is a function that can be called to pass control to the next middleware function in the chain. It is often used to implement error handling or to handle requests that do not match any of the defined routes. 
  • params: This is an object that contains the named parameters in the URL of the request. For example, if the route is defined as /users/:userId, the params object will contain the userId parameter. 
  • query: This is an object that contains the query string parameters in the URL of the request. For example, if the URL is /users?sort=asc, the query object will contain the sort parameter. 

There are many others as well and therefore it is important to refer to the Express.js documentation for a complete list of available arguments and how to use them. 

You can configure properties in the application using the app.set method. This method takes a key and a value as arguments and sets the value for the specified key in the application's settings. 

Here is an example of how you might use the app.set method to configure properties in an Express application: 

const express = require('express'); 
const app = express(); 
// Set the 'view engine' property to 'ejs' 
app.set('view engine', 'ejs'); 
// Set the 'jsonp callback name' property to 'callback' 
app.set('jsonp callback name', 'callback'); 

One of the most common MEAN stack developer interview questions for experienced, don't miss this one.

In Angular, every component has a lifecycle. Angular creates and renders these components and also destroys them before removing them from the DOM. This is achieved with the help of lifecycle hooks. Here is the list of them -  

  • ngOnChanges() - Responds when Angular sets/resets data-bound input properties. 
  • ngOnInit() - Initialize the directive/component after Angular first displays the data-bound properties and sets the directive/component's input properties 
  • ngDoCheck() - Detect and act upon changes that Angular cannot or will not detect on its own. 
  • ngAfterContentInit() - Responds after Angular projects external content into the component's view. 
  • ngAfterContentChecked() - Respond after Angular checks the content projected into the component. 
  • ngAfterViewInit() - Respond after Angular initializes the component's views and child views. 
  • ngAfterViewChecked() - This hook responds after Angular checks the component's views and child views. 
  • ngOnDestroy() - This hook helps clean up just before Angular destroys the directive/component. 

String Interpolation is a one-way data-binding technique that outputs the data from TypeScript code to HTML view. It is denoted using double curly braces. This template expression helps display the data from the component to the view.  

E.g.: 

{{ data }} 

The ngFor directive in Angular is used to generate lists and tables in HTML templates. It allows you to loop over an array or an object and create a template for each element. The syntax for using ngFor includes a "let" keyword, which creates a local variable that is available within the template, and an "of" keyword, which indicates that we are iterating over an iterable 

The * symbol before ngFor creates a parent template. For example, the following code uses ngFor to loop over an array of items and create a list element for each item: 

<ul 
<li *ngFor = "let items in itemlist"> {{ item }} </li> 
</ul> 

The ngFor directive iterates over the itemlist array and creates a list element for each item in the array. The item variable is a local variable that is available within the template and represents the current item being iterated over. The ngFor directive is a powerful tool for generating lists and tables in Angular templates and can greatly simplify the process of rendering data in a web application. 

There are two approaches, namely, Template and Reactive forms when working with Angular. They both have their advantages and appropriate scenarios where they should be used, check them out below: 

Template-driven approach 

One way to create forms in Angular is by using the conventional form tag and adding controls to the form using the NGModel directive. The Angular framework automatically interprets and creates a form object representation for the form tag. Multiple controls can be grouped using the NGControlGroup module. To generate a form value, you can use the "form.value" object, and form data can be exported as JSON values when the submit method is called. Basic HTML validations can be used to validate form fields, or custom validations can be implemented using directives. This method of creating forms in Angular is considered to be straightforward.  

Reactive Form Approach 

Reactive forms in Angular are a programming paradigm that is oriented around data flows and the propagation of change. With reactive forms, the component directly manages the data flows between form controls and data models. Unlike template-driven forms, reactive forms are code-driven and break from the traditional declarative approach. They eliminate the need for two-way data binding, which is considered an anti-pattern. Reactive form control creation is typically synchronous, which allows for unit testing with synchronous programming techniques. Overall, reactive forms offer a code-driven approach to managing data flows and propagating change in an Angular application. 

This question is a regular feature in any MEAN Stack Interview, be ready to tackle it with the explanation below.

Sharing data between components in Angular is a common task that can be accomplished by creating a service and injecting it into the components that need to share data. To generate a new service, you can use the Angular CLI's ng generate service command, which will create a new service file in the src/app folder. 

For example, to create a new service called MyDataService, you can run the following command: 

ng generate service my-data-service 

Once the service is created, you can inject it into any component that needs to share data by importing the service and adding it to the component's constructor. 

import { MyDataService } from './my-data.service'; 
constructor(private myDataServiceMyDataService{ } 

Once the service is injected into the component, you can use it to share data between components using the setData() and getData() methods. 

this.myDataService.setData('some data'); 
const data = this.myDataService.getData(); 

Overall, using a service to share data between components in Angular is a straightforward process that can help to facilitate communication and data sharing in your application. 

The event loop is a mechanism in JavaScript and Node.js that allows the runtime to execute asynchronous code in a non-blocking manner. It works by continuously checking a queue of tasks and executing them when they are ready to be run. The event loop helps to ensure that the main thread of execution is not blocked by long-running tasks, allowing the program to remain responsive to new events and inputs. The event loop is a key feature of JavaScript's asynchronous programming model and is what allows Node.js to handle large numbers of concurrent connections efficiently.

The Buffer class in Node.js is a global class that allows you to create, manipulate, and work with binary data in the form of Buffer objects in JavaScript.

Buffers are useful for working with binary data, such as reading and writing data to files, sending and receiving data over a network, and working with data stored in a database. They are also often used when working with streams, as they allow you to buffer data before processing it or sending it to the next stage of the pipeline.

You can also use the Buffer class to perform various operations on buffers, such as comparing them, searching for substrings, and concatenating them.

Overall, the Buffer class is an important part of the Node.js ecosystem and is widely used for working with binary data in JavaScript.

streams are a way to read and write data in a continuous, asynchronous manner. They provide a way to process data incrementally, rather than reading or writing it all at once, which makes them useful for handling large amounts of data or for working with data that is generated or consumed over time. 

There are four types of streams in Node.js: readable, writable, duplex, and transform. 

  1. Readable streams allow you to read data from a source, such as a file or a network socket. 
  2. Writable streams allow you to write data to a destination, such as a file or a network socket.  
  3. Duplex streams are streams that are both readable and writable, allowing you to read from and write to the same stream. 
  4. Transform streams are a type of duplex stream that transform the data as it is written and read. They are often used to modify the data in some way, such as compressing or encrypting it.  

Streams are widely used for working with data flexibly and efficiently. 

chaining refers to the practice of calling multiple methods on an object or value in a single statement. This can be done by returning the object or value from each method, allowing the next method to be called on it. 

Chaining is often used to simplify code and make it more concise by reducing the need to create intermediate variables. It is particularly useful when working with streams, as it allows you to perform multiple operations on the stream in a single statement. 

Here is an example of chaining in Node.js: 

const fs = require('fs'); 
fs.createReadStream('input.txt') 
.pipe(process.stdout) 
.on('error', err => { 
console.error(err); 
}); 

In this example, we use chaining to create a readable stream from the input.txt file, pipe the stream to the standard output, and attach an error handler to the stream.  

In Angular, pipes are a way to transform and format data in templates. They are a declarative way to apply transformations to data within the template, without having to write imperative code in the component class. 

Pipes are denoted by the | character, followed by the name of the pipe and any optional parameters. For example, to format a number as a currency using the built-in currency pipe, you might use the following syntax in a template: 

<p>Total: {{ total | currency }}</p> 

In this example, the currency pipe will transform the total value into a formatted currency string, such as $1,234.56.

Pure pipes are pipes that are only executed when the input value to the pipe changes. This means that if the input value is the same as the previous value, the pipe will not be re-executed. Pure pipes are efficient because they are only called when the input value changes, and they do not need to track any internal state. 

Eg: 

@Pipe({ 
name: 'uppercase', 
pure: true 
}) 
export class UppercasePipe implements PipeTransform { 
transform(value: string): string { 
return value.toUpperCase(); 
} 
} 

Impure pipes, on the other hand, are pipes that are executed on every change detection cycle, regardless of whether the input value has changed. This means that impure pipes can be called multiple times even if the input value has not changed. Impure pipes are useful when the transformation performed by the pipe is expensive or when the pipe needs to track its internal state. 

Eg: 

@Pipe({ 
name: 'random', 
pure: false 
}) 
export class RandomPipe implements PipeTransform { 
transform(value: any[]): any { 
return value[Math.floor(Math.random() * value.length)]; 
} 
} 

In general, it is recommended to use pure pipes whenever possible, as they are more efficient and easier to understand. 

A route guard is a feature that allows you to control access to routes based on certain conditions. Route guards are implemented as services that can be used to protect routes from unauthorized access or to perform certain actions before allowing access to a route.

Route guards are typically implemented using the `canActivate` or `canActivateChild` interfaces, which define methods that are called by the router to determine whether a route can be activated. These methods can return a boolean value indicating whether the route can be activated, or a Promise or Observable that resolves to a boolean value.

The Timers module in Node.js contains functions that execute code after a set period of time. 

  • setTimeout/clearTimeout – Is used to schedule code execution after a designated amount of time in milliseconds. 
  • setInterval/clearInterval – can be used to execute a block of code multiple times, i.e. after a set interval. 
  • setImmediate/clearImmediate – will execute code at the end of the current event loop cycle. 
  • process.nextTick – used to schedule a callback function to be invoked in the next iteration of the Event Loop. 

It will print 0 1 2 3 4, because we use let instead of var here. The variable i is only seen in the for loop's block scope. 

Advanced

Every time a user interacts with an application, it is considered a request-response cycle. The need to persist information between requests is important for maintaining the ultimate experience for the user of any web application and this is achieved via Cookies and Sessions.

Cookies can be referred to as plain text files which store small information like usernames, passwords, etc. in the browser, every reload of the website sends that stored cookie along with the request back to the web server to recognize the user.

However, the server will not be able to recognize whether the cookies are being used by the same client. Or find out if the current request is coming from a user who performed the request previously?

This is where Sessions come into the picture. Sessions are used to maintain users' stare on the server side, i.e. When we use sessions, every user is assigned a unique session every time thereby helping to store users' state. Simply put session is the place to store data that we want to access multiple requests at the same or different times.

There are several approaches to handling versioning for APIs. Below are some of the approaches to keep in mind. 

  1. One common approach is to include the API version in the URL of the API endpoints. For example, you might have separate URLs for different versions of the API, such as /api/v1/users and /api/v2/users. This allows you to maintain separate versions of the API and deploy them concurrently, allowing clients to choose which version of the API they want to use. 
  2. Another approach is to use a versioning header in the HTTP request. This involves adding a header field to the request that specifies the version of the API that the client wants to use. For example, you might use a header such as X-API-Version or Accept-Version. This approach allows clients to specify the API version they want to use without changing the URL of the request. 
  3. It is also common to include the API version in the media type of the response, using the Content-Type header. For example, you might use a media type such as application/vnd.myapi+json;version=1.0 to specify the version of the API in the response. 

Node.js streams emit a variety of events that allow you to perform different actions based on the state of the stream. Here are some of the commonly fired events by streams: 

  • data: This event is emitted when data is available to be read from a readable stream. It is typically used to process the data as it is read from the stream. 
  • end: This event is emitted when there is no more data to be read from a readable stream. It indicates that the stream has reached the end of the data. 
  • error: This event is emitted when an error occurs while reading or writing data to a stream. It is typically used to handle errors and prevent the stream from becoming stuck. 
  • close: This event is emitted when a stream is closed. It can be used to clean up resources or perform other actions when the stream is no longer needed. 
  • finish: This event is emitted when a writable stream has finished writing all of the data. It indicates that the stream is now ready to be closed. 
  • pipe: This event is emitted when a readable stream is piped to a writable stream. It is typically used to perform additional processing on the data as it is being written to the stream. 

In Node.js, child threads are not natively supported, as Node.js uses a single-threaded event loop to handle incoming requests and perform asynchronous operations. However, there are several ways to leverage child threads in Node.js using external libraries or APIs. 

One way to handle child threads in Node.js is to use the child_process module, which provides an API for creating child processes and communicating with them. The child_process module allows you to spawn new processes using the spawn function, which creates a new process and returns an object that you can use to communicate with the process. 

For example: 

const { spawn } = require('child_process'); 
const child = spawn('node', ['child.js']); 
child.stdout.on('data', data => { 
console.log(`child stdout:\n${data}`); 
}); 
child.stderr.on('data', data => { 
console.error(`child stderr:\n${data}`); 
}); 
child.on('close', code => { 
console.log(`child process exited with code ${code}`); 
}); 

In this example, we use the spawn function to create a new child process that runs the child.js script. We can then listen for events on the child process's stdout, stderr, and close events to receive output and handle errors, and exit events from the child process. 

Clustering is a technique for improving the performance of a Node.js application by leveraging the multi-core capabilities of modern CPUs. It involves creating multiple worker processes that share the same port and run concurrently, allowing the application to take advantage of multiple CPU cores and improve its performance. 

To implement clustering in a Node.js application, you can use the cluster module, which provides an API for creating and managing worker processes. The cluster module allows you to fork worker processes and communicate with them using inter-process communication (IPC) channels. 

Here is an example of how you might use the cluster module to implement clustering in a Node.js application: 

const cluster = require('cluster'); 
const http = require('http'); 
const numCPUs = require('os').cpus().length; // to get no of CPU's 
if (cluster.isMaster) { 
console.log(`Master ${process.pid} is running`); 
// Fork workers. 
for (let i = 0; i < numCPUsi++) { 
cluster.fork(); 
} 
cluster.on('exit', (worker, code, signal) => { 
console.log(`worker ${worker.process.pid} died`); 
}); 
} else { 
// Workers can share any TCP connection 
// In this case it is an HTTP server 
http.createServer((req, res) => { 
res.writeHead(200); 
res.end('hello world\n'); 

One of the key features of Node.js is its use of the event loop, which is a mechanism that continually listens for and processes events. The event loop listens for events from various sources, such as user input, network requests, and timer events, and executes the appropriate event handler when an event occurs.

In Node.js, event-driven programming is often used to build scalable, high-performance applications that can handle a large number of concurrent connections. For example, a Node.js server might use event-driven programming to handle incoming HTTP requests by listening for events and executing the appropriate event handler when a request is received.

Overall, event-driven programming is a fundamental concept in Node.js and is an important part of its design and performance characteristics.

The Node.js process model refers to the way that Node.js handles processes and threads. Node.js is built on top of the Chrome V8 JavaScript engine, which is designed to run JavaScript code in a single-threaded, non-blocking manner. This means that Node.js uses a single thread to execute JavaScript code, and it uses non-blocking I/O operations to prevent blocking the thread while waiting for I/O operations to complete.

One of the key benefits of the Node.js process model is that it allows Node.js applications to handle a large number of concurrent connections without the need for threading. This is because the single-threaded, non-blocking nature of Node.js allows it to efficiently handle multiple connections and requests without the overhead of creating and managing multiple threads.

When it comes to error handling on the backend side, specifically for the APIs a combination of error handling, input validation, and good API documentation can help to ensure that your API is robust, reliable, and easy to use. 

There are a few different strategies that you can use to handle errors and validate input in an API: 

Error handling: To handle errors that occur during the execution of an API, you can use try-catch blocks to catch and handle exceptions that are thrown. You can also use HTTP status codes to indicate the type of error that occurred, such as a 4xx status code for a client error or a 5xx status code for a server error. 

Input validation: To validate input in an API, you can use a variety of techniques, such as: 

  1. Validating the format and type of the input using regular expressions or type checking 
  2. Ensuring that required fields are present and have a valid value 
  3. Checking that the input falls within a certain range or meets certain criteria 
  4. Sanitizing the input to remove any potentially malicious or unwanted characters 

API documentation: Providing clear and comprehensive documentation for your API can help to ensure that users understand the format and requirements for the input that your API expects. This can help to reduce the likelihood of errors and ensure that your API is used correctly. 

Angular implements a "real DOM" (also known as a "live DOM"), which means that it uses a full, mutable version of the Document Object Model (DOM).

In a real DOM, changes to the DOM are made directly to the actual DOM tree, and these changes are immediately reflected in the browser. This can be more efficient in certain situations, as it allows for fine-grained control over the DOM and can avoid the need for expensive DOM manipulations.

However, the real DOM can also be slower than other types of DOMs, as it requires more resources and can be more complex to work with. As a result, some frameworks and libraries, such as React, implement a "virtual DOM" instead, which is a lightweight, in-memory representation of the DOM that can be used to efficiently update the actual DOM without incurring the overhead of direct DOM manipulation.

One of the most frequently posed interview questions for MEAN stack developer, be ready for it. You can have your answer in this format -

MVVM (Model-View-ViewModel) is a software design pattern that is used to develop software applications. It is similar to the MVC (Model-View-Controller) pattern, but it separates the user interface logic from the business logic, while MVC separates the data access logic from the business logic. Here the separation of concerns facilitates the easier development, testing, and maintenance of software applications.

In the MVVM pattern, the Model layer is responsible for storing and managing data, which can be a database, a web service, or a local data source. The View layer is responsible for displaying data to the user, such as through a GUI, a CLI, or a web page. The ViewModel layer handles user input and updates the View layer accordingly, containing the business logic of the application.

The ViewModel layer acts as a bridge between the Model and View layers, and it is responsible for converting the data from the Model layer into a format that is suitable for display in the View layer. It also handles user input and passes it to the Model layer for processing.

MVVM architecture is often used in conjunction with other design patterns, such as MVP (Model-View-Presenter) and MVC, to create complete software applications.

The abbreviation 'AOT' is defined as "Ahead Of Time" compilation, which is the compilation of high-level programming language into a native machine code to execute the resulting binary file natively, here the code is generated at application build time, instead of run-time.

It is used as it is one way of improving the performance of programs on run time and in particular, the startup time so to improve the warming-up period when compiling code, the compilation happens before the program is run, therefore it is usually added as a build step.

In software development, "eager loading" and "lazy loading" refer to two different strategies for loading data or resources on demand. 

Eager loading refers to the practice of loading all of the data or resources that are required for a particular feature or module at once, typically when the feature or module is first initialized. This can help to improve the performance of the feature or module by reducing the number of additional requests that are needed to load additional data or resources. However, it can also increase the initial load time of the feature or module, as it requires all of the data or resources to be loaded at once. 

Lazy loading refers to the practice of loading data or resources only when they are needed, rather than loading them all at once. This can help to reduce the initial load time of a feature or module, as it only loads the data or resources that are needed. However, it can also result in slower performance if the data or resources are needed frequently, as it requires additional requests to be made each time they are needed. 

Both eager loading and lazy loading have their trade-offs and can be useful in different situations. It is important to carefully consider the requirements and performance needs of a particular feature or module when deciding which loading strategy to use.

Although you might think that they are alike, they are not, and it is expected for an experienced developer to know the difference between them.

Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a user or system. It involves presenting a set of credentials, such as a username and password, and verifying that the credentials are valid. Authentication is typically the first step in a security process and is used to determine whether a user or system is whom they claim to be.

Authorization, on the other hand, is the process of granting or denying access to specific resources or actions based on the authenticated identity. It involves determining what a user or system is allowed to do based on their permissions or privileges. For example, a user might be authenticated as a member of a certain group, but they might not be authorized to perform certain actions or access certain resources unless they have the appropriate permissions.

In summary, authentication is the process of verifying identity, while authorization is the process of granting or denying access based on the authenticated identity. Both are important for securing systems and ensuring that users and systems are only able to perform the actions and access the resources that they are permitted to.

A must-know for anyone heading into a MEAN Stack interview, this question is frequently asked in MEAN Stack Interviews.

In MongoDB, indexes are data structures that allow the database to quickly locate specific documents within a collection. Indexes can be created on one or more fields in a collection, and they are used to improve the performance of read operations by allowing the database to quickly locate the desired documents without having to scan the entire collection. 

There are several types of indexes available in MongoDB, including single-field indexes, multi-field indexes, compound indexes, and text indexes. Each type of index is optimized for different types of queries and can be used to improve the performance of specific types of operations. 

Indexes are an important tool for improving the performance of a MongoDB database, as they allow the database to locate documents more efficiently and can greatly reduce the time it takes to execute queries.  

However, it is important to carefully consider the trade-offs of using indexes, as they can also increase the overhead of write operations and require additional storage space.

A table scan is a type of database operation that involves scanning through all of the rows in a table to locate specific data. Table scans are often used when a database query does not have a suitable index available to use, or when the query requires data from all rows in the table. 

Table scans can be inefficient, as they require the database to read and process every row in the table, which can take a significant amount of time for large tables. As a result, it is generally best to avoid table scans whenever possible, as they can harm the performance of a database. 

To improve the performance of queries that may require a table scan, it is often helpful to create indexes on the relevant fields in the table. This allows the database to locate the desired data more quickly and efficiently, without having to scan the entire table. 

Overall, table scans are a useful tool in a database, but they should be used sparingly to avoid impacting the performance of the database. 

The Aggregation Framework is a set of tools in MongoDB that allows developers to perform complex data processing and analysis on their data. It provides a powerful set of operators and pipeline stages that can be used to transform, filter, and group data in a variety of ways. 

The Aggregation Framework is often used to perform tasks such as: 

  • Grouping data by a specific field or set of fields 
  • Calculating statistics and summaries of data 
  • Projecting data to a new shape or format 
  • Filtering data based on specific criteria 
  • Sorting data in a specific order 

To perform aggregation in MongoDB, you can use the aggregate() method, which takes an array of pipeline stages as its argument. Each stage in the pipeline performs a specific operation on the data, and the stages can be combined in a variety of ways to achieve the desired result. 

Eg: 

db.sales.aggregate([ 
{ 
$group: { 
_id: "$category", 
totalSales{ $sum: "$amount" } 
} 
} 
]) 

Description

Top Mean stack Interview Tips and Tricks for Programmers 

Now that you have checked MEAN Stack interview questions and answers for experienced and for freshers, you should also check out some tips and tricks of the trade to make your work as a MEAN stack developer easier. 

  1. Use a framework like Express.js to simplify the development of the server side of your MEAN stack application. 
  2. Use Angular CLI to generate components, services, and other code structures to help speed up development. 
  3. Use a linter like ESLint to ensure that your code follows best practices and adheres to a consistent style. 
  4. Use a testing framework like Jasmine or Mocha to write and run automated tests for your application. 
  5. Use version control tools like Git to track changes to your code and collaborate with other developers. 
  6. Use a task runner like Grunt or Gulp to automate common tasks like building, testing, and deploying your application. 
  7. Use a package manager like npm or yarn to manage dependencies and install third-party libraries and frameworks. 
  8. Use a code editor with built-in support for MEAN stack development, such as Visual Studio Code or WebStorm. 
  9. Use a debugger like Node Inspector or the built-in debugger in your code editor to troubleshoot and fix issues in your code. 
  10. Stay up-to-date with the latest developments in the MEAN stack community by following blogs and attending meetups and conferences. 

How to Prepare for a Mean stack Interview?

MEAN stack interview questions and answers for experienced and freshers developers mentioned in this article are a great way to start preparing for your interviews.

  1. Familiarize yourself with the core technologies that make up the MEAN stack: MongoDB, Express.js, Angular, and Node.js. 
  2. Understand the principles of MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture and how it is used in the MEAN stack. 
  3. Be familiar with the key concepts and features of each technology in the MEAN stack, such as NoSQL databases, RESTful APIs, and asynchronous programming. 
  4. Practice working with the MEAN stack by building small projects or working on open-source projects. 
  5. Review common MEAN stack design patterns and best practices, such as dependency injection, modular design, and separation of concerns. 
  6. Understand the concepts of continuous integration and deployment, and be familiar with tools like Jenkins, Docker, and Kubernetes. 
  7. Review common MEAN stack interview questions and practice answering them, either on your own or with the help of a mentor or coach. 
  8. Be prepared to discuss your coding style, your debugging and problem-solving skills, and your experience working in a team environment. 

Kicking off with the roles associated with MEAN Stack. 

  • MEAN Stack Developer 
  • Full Stack Developer 
  • JavaScript Developer 
  • Node.js Developer 
  • Web Developer 
  • Software Engineer 
  • Software Architect 
  • MEAN Stack System Administrator 
  • MEAN Stack Consultant 
  • MEAN Stack Cloud Engineer 
  • MEAN Stack Architect.  

The top companies that hire MEAN Stack developers are as follows: 

  • LinkedIn 
  • Accenture 
  • Nagarro 
  • TCS 
  • Cognizant 
  • Infosys 
  • Brainvire 
  • Appstudio 

What to Expect in a Mean stack Interview?

During a MEAN stack interview, you can expect to be asked questions about your experience with the technologies that make up the MEAN stack, including MongoDB, Express.js, Angular, and Node.js. You may also be asked about your experience with MVC architecture and other software design patterns that are commonly used in the MEAN stack. 

Other topics that you may be asked about include: 

  • Your approach to building and testing MEAN stack applications 
  • Your understanding of NoSQL databases and how to work with them 
  • Your experience building RESTful APIs and working with HTTP requests and responses 
  • Your understanding of asynchronous programming and how to handle it in the MEAN stack 
  • Your experience with version control tools like Git, and your approach to code collaboration and review 

Summary

MEAN Stack developers have become an integral part of organizations looking to develop quick, dynamic, effective applications, and ensure that the final product meets user needs at the same time. And as the demand has grown, organizations are looking for bulletproof developers that can create an impact with their skills and knowledge. Therefore it is of utmost importance that candidates should be prepared to answer questions covering topics such as their experience with various programming languages, communication strategies, project management style, problem-solving approaches, and more. In case you want to learn more about MEAN stack skills, check out the MEAN Stack Course.  

In addition to technical analysis questions, interview questions may also include behavioral questions meant to uncover the candidate's approach to day-to-day work and management of the development process. Knowledge of cloud, microservices and security are also important topics that may come up in a MEAN stack interview.  

These MEAN stack developer interview questions and answers set is tailored towards different levels of expertise in the field, and we have divided our mean stack developer interview questions and answers set into beginner & expert levels so that all candidates can find a set appropriate to their experience. Each level contains questions on topics ranging from the basics of MEAN stack to challenging output questions that are generally asked in the interview to test the candidate. Moreover, for overall coverage, we have also added some expert advice on how to prepare for such interviews and what to expect in such interviews, which should you give an edge over the other candidates. You should check out these Website Developer courses if you are looking for some great hands-on resources to learn about building a website. All in all, you need to be well-prepared and familiarize yourself with these questions before walking into an interview, as this will greatly increase your chances.

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