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Amazon Elastic Load Balancer: Definition, Benefits and Features

Elastic Load Balancing handles the varying load of your application traffic in a single Availability Zone or across multiple Availability Zones. It automatically distributes incoming application traffic across multiple targets, such as Lambda functions, IP addresses, containers, and Amazon EC2 instances.Types of Elastic Load BalancerELB consists of three diverse types of load balancer which help to achieve extensive cloud computing measures. These include:Classic Load Balancer (CLB): This is the most fundamental way of load balancing which replaces the conventional physical hardware with virtual devices to provide an optimum level of experience. Classic Load Balancer is usually designed for the applications that are within EC2 classic networks. It functions both at the request and connection level.Application Load Balancer (ALB): It functions to route advanced traffic to targets such as EC2 instances, IP addresses, containers, Lambda functions depending on the request. Application Load Balancer provides advanced request routing such that incoming traffic can be routed against multiple availability zones. Application Load Balancer contributes towards safeguarding the security of the applications by using designated protocols and ciphers. It can route the request on the basis of the content.Network Load Balancer (NLB): Network Load Balancer operates at the connection level i.e Layer 4 when a target becomes slow or unavailable it routes the traffic to another target within Amazon Virtual Private Network based on IP Protocol suited for both TCP and UDP traffic. Network Load Balancer is capable of handling millions of requests per second while it grows and can handle sudden volatile traffic patterns using a single static IP address. It can maintain ultra-low latencies. It is an amalgamation of various recognized AWS services such as Auto Scaling, Amazon EC2 Container Service (ECS), Amazon CloudFormation and AWS Certificate Manager (ACM).Benefits of Load Balancing in AWS environment:1. Highly available: Electric load balancing can route traffic to multiple targets automatically and can also load balance across a region routing towards a proper target in multiple availability zones.2. Secure: The TLS settings can be centrally managed and one can even discharge the workloads of the CPU while working with Amazon Virtual Private Network Cloud providing sustainable security, user authentication, integrated certificate management, and SLS/TLS decryption.3. Flexible: The applications could interact among each other through a microservice-based architecture and one can customize the application targets by the use of IP address in Elastic load balancer. 4. Elastic: It can manage rapid fluctuations in traffic and with the incorporation of auto-scaling, it can meet the various levels of measurable capacity with least manual involvement.5. Hybrid load balancing: It is convenient to drift, switchover or migrate on-premises applications to the cloud since the elastic load balancer can balance load across AWS and on-premises using the same load balancer.6. Robust monitoring and auditing: One can keep a track of activities of the applications, resolve the issues and know the cause of the problem by surveying the performance in real time with the assistance of Amazon CloudWatch metrics, logging and request tracing in Elastic load balancer.Features of Elastic Load Balancing1. Security: It uses Amazon Private Virtual Network Cloud thus providing extra security to the load balancers and one can even create an internal load balancer.2. Health checks: It can track unfit targets and prohibits the flow of load towards and then balances the load towards the working targets.3.TLS termination: With the help of SSL/TLS decryption and integrated certificate management, the CPU is offloaded and the SSL settings are managed at the core. 4. High availability: It can automatically distribute traffic to multiple availability zones or single availability zone working on the same load balancer.5. Operational Monitoring: With Amazon CloudWatch metrics, logging and request tracking, one can overview the working in real-time.6. Layer 4 and Layer 7 balancing: HTTP/HTTPS  applications can be used to load balance for 7 Layer or strictly for layer 4 which depends on UDP and TCP controls.7. Product Comparisons: Being flexible in nature, one can make choices on the basis of the need of the applications; such as one using an EC2-classic network can use a classic load balancer or if a flexible application is needed, one can use the Application load balancer.AWS is the present and the future. We hoped this article helped you get familiar with the services offered by the AWS. If you want to know more about AWS and get certified, you can try the  AWS certification course offered by KnowledgeHut.
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Amazon Elastic Load Balancer: Definition, Benefits and Features

10K
  • by Joydip Kumar
  • 06th Sep, 2019
  • Last updated on 06th Sep, 2019
  • 5 mins read
Amazon Elastic Load Balancer: Definition, Benefits and Features

Elastic Load Balancing handles the varying load of your application traffic in a single Availability Zone or across multiple Availability Zones. It automatically distributes incoming application traffic across multiple targets, such as Lambda functions, IP addresses, containers, and Amazon EC2 instances.

Types of Elastic Load Balancer

Elastic Load Balancer Types

ELB consists of three diverse types of load balancer which help to achieve extensive cloud computing measures. These include:

  • Classic Load Balancer (CLB): This is the most fundamental way of load balancing which replaces the conventional physical hardware with virtual devices to provide an optimum level of experience. Classic Load Balancer is usually designed for the applications that are within EC2 classic networks. It functions both at the request and connection level.
  • Application Load Balancer (ALB): It functions to route advanced traffic to targets such as EC2 instances, IP addresses, containers, Lambda functions depending on the request. Application Load Balancer provides advanced request routing such that incoming traffic can be routed against multiple availability zones. Application Load Balancer contributes towards safeguarding the security of the applications by using designated protocols and ciphers. It can route the request on the basis of the content.
  • Network Load Balancer (NLB): Network Load Balancer operates at the connection level i.e Layer 4 when a target becomes slow or unavailable it routes the traffic to another target within Amazon Virtual Private Network based on IP Protocol suited for both TCP and UDP traffic. Network Load Balancer is capable of handling millions of requests per second while it grows and can handle sudden volatile traffic patterns using a single static IP address. It can maintain ultra-low latencies. It is an amalgamation of various recognized AWS services such as Auto Scaling, Amazon EC2 Container Service (ECS), Amazon CloudFormation and AWS Certificate Manager (ACM).

Benefits of Load Balancing in AWS environment:

Benefits of Load Balancing in AWS environment

1. Highly available: Electric load balancing can route traffic to multiple targets automatically and can also load balance across a region routing towards a proper target in multiple availability zones.

2. Secure: The TLS settings can be centrally managed and one can even discharge the workloads of the CPU while working with Amazon Virtual Private Network Cloud providing sustainable security, user authentication, integrated certificate management, and SLS/TLS decryption.

3. Flexible: The applications could interact among each other through a microservice-based architecture and one can customize the application targets by the use of IP address in Elastic load balancer. 

4. Elastic: It can manage rapid fluctuations in traffic and with the incorporation of auto-scaling, it can meet the various levels of measurable capacity with least manual involvement.

5. Hybrid load balancing: It is convenient to drift, switchover or migrate on-premises applications to the cloud since the elastic load balancer can balance load across AWS and on-premises using the same load balancer.

6. Robust monitoring and auditing: One can keep a track of activities of the applications, resolve the issues and know the cause of the problem by surveying the performance in real time with the assistance of Amazon CloudWatch metrics, logging and request tracing in Elastic load balancer.

Features of Elastic Load Balancing

Features of Elastic Load Balancing in AWS

1. Security: It uses Amazon Private Virtual Network Cloud thus providing extra security to the load balancers and one can even create an internal load balancer.

2. Health checks: It can track unfit targets and prohibits the flow of load towards and then balances the load towards the working targets.

3.TLS termination: With the help of SSL/TLS decryption and integrated certificate management, the CPU is offloaded and the SSL settings are managed at the core. 

4. High availability: It can automatically distribute traffic to multiple availability zones or single availability zone working on the same load balancer.

5. Operational Monitoring: With Amazon CloudWatch metrics, logging and request tracking, one can overview the working in real-time.

6. Layer 4 and Layer 7 balancing: HTTP/HTTPS  applications can be used to load balance for 7 Layer or strictly for layer 4 which depends on UDP and TCP controls.

7. Product Comparisons: Being flexible in nature, one can make choices on the basis of the need of the applications; such as one using an EC2-classic network can use a classic load balancer or if a flexible application is needed, one can use the Application load balancer.

AWS is the present and the future. We hoped this article helped you get familiar with the services offered by the AWS. If you want to know more about AWS and get certified, you can try the  AWS certification course offered by KnowledgeHut.

Joydip

Joydip Kumar

Solution Architect

Joydip is passionate about building cloud-based applications and has been providing solutions to various multinational clients. Being a java programmer and an AWS certified cloud architect, he loves to design, develop, and integrate solutions. Amidst his busy work schedule, Joydip loves to spend time on writing blogs and contributing to the opensource community.


Website : http://geeks18.com/

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What is AWS CLI and How to Install it?

Whether you are a small business or a big organisation, you must be familiar with Amazon Web Services. AWS is the world’s most widely used cloud computing platform – something that lets you move faster, operate more securely and save substantial costs. AWS offers 165 services spanning a wide range including computing, tools for the Internet of Things, developer tools, deployment, analytics, database, networking, etc. The AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) is a unified tool to manage your AWS services.Do you want to Get AWS Certified? Learn about various  AWS Certification in detailWhat is AWS CLI?The AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) is a unified tool that manages the AWS services for you. You only have to download and configure one simple tool to control a plethora of AWS services. They are automated through scripts and help you implement a certain level of automation. It is indeed AWS CLI that makes AWS so dynamic and easy to use.How to Install AWS CLI?Putting AWS CLI to use in your AWS involves a few steps.There are a few different ways to install it – you need to choose what works for your system.Every operating system has a different method of installation.Some generic steps are followed after the installation.Then comes the configuration.You will also need to upgrade it timely. Follow these steps to successfully install and configure the AWS CLI for use.Ways to Install:You can effectively install the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI) using:pipa virtual environmenta bundled installerWhat do you need?Unix, macOS, Linux, WindowsPython 3 version 3.3+ or Python 2 version 2.6.5+It is important to know that you may not be able to use an older version of Python with all AWS Services. Update to a newer version if there are Insecure Platform Warning or deprecation notices. To find out what version you currently have, visit:  https://github.com/aws/aws-cli/blob/master/CHANGELOG.rst.1. Installing the AWS CLI Using pipPip is the main distribution method for the AWS CLI on macOS, Windows and Linux. It is a package manager for Python.Installing the current AWS CLI VersionIf you have pip and a supported version of Python, use the following command to install the AWS CLI. Use the pip3 command if you have Python version 3+ installed:$ pip3 install awscli --upgrade –userThe --upgrade option commands pip3 to upgrade the requirements that are already installed. The --user option commands pip3 to install the program to a subdirectory of the user directory. Doing this avoids the complication of modifying libraries used by your operating system.Upgrading to the latest versionUse the pip list -o command to identify packages that are "outdated”:$ aws --version aws-cli/1.16.170 Python/3.7.3 Linux/4.14.123-111.109.amzn2.x86_64 botocore/1.12.160 $ pip3 list -o Package Version Latest Type ---------- -------- -------- ----- awscli 1.16.170 1.16.198 wheel botocore 1.12.160 1.12.188 wheelNow, run pip install --upgrade to get the latest version:$ pip3 install --upgrade --user awscli Collecting aws cli Downloadinghttps://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/dc/70/b32e9534c32fe9331801449e1f7eacba6a1992c2e4af9c82ac9116661d3b/awscli-1.16.198-py2.py3-none-any.whl (1.7MB) |████████████████████████████████| 1.7MB 1.6MB/s Collecting botocore==1.12.188 (from awscli) Using cached https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/10/cb/8dcfb3e035a419f228df7d3a0eea5d52b528bde7ca162f62f3096a930472/botocore-1.12.188-py2.py3-none-any.whl Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: docutils>=0.10 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from awscli) (0.14) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: rsa=3.1.2 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from awscli) (3.4.2) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: colorama=0.2.5 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from awscli) (0.3.9) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: PyYAML=3.10; python_version != "2.6" in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from awscli) (3.13) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: s3transfer=0.2.0 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from awscli) (0.2.0) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: jmespath=0.7.1 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from botocore==1.12.188->awscli) (0.9.4) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: urllib3=1.20; python_version >= "3.4" in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from botocore==1.12.188->awscli) (1.24.3) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: python-dateutil=2.1; python_version >= "2.7" in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from botocore==1.12.188->awscli) (2.8.0) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: pyasn1>=0.1.3 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from rsa=3.1.2->awscli) (0.4.5) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: six>=1.5 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from python-dateutil=2.1; python_version >= "2.7"->botocore==1.12.188->awscli) (1.12.0) Installing collected packages: botocore, awscli Found existing installation: botocore 1.12.160 Uninstalling botocore-1.12.160: Successfully uninstalled botocore-1.12.160 Found existing installation: awscli 1.16.170 Uninstalling awscli-1.16.170: Successfully uninstalled awscli-1.16.170 Successfully installed awscli-1.16.198 botocore-1.12.1882. Installing the AWS CLI in a Virtual EnvironmentAnother option is to install the AWS CLI in a virtual environment to separate the tool and its dependencies. You can also use a different Python version for this purpose.3. Installing the AWS CLI Using an InstallerUse the bundled installer for automated and offline installation on Unix, macOS, and Linux. It includes the AWS CLI, its dependencies, and a shell script that is responsible for the installation. For Windows, try MSI installer. Both these methods simplify the initial installation. Installation of Linux or UnixBoth the platforms have identical installation process. You need to have Python’s latest version. We recommend using the bundled installer for this. The steps are as follows:1. To begin the installation:curl "https://s3.amazonaws.com/aws-cli/awscli-bundle.zip" -o "awscli-bundle.zip"2. Unzip the downloaded package:unzip awscli-bundle.zip3. Run the installation:sudo ./awscli-bundle/install -i /usr/local/aws -b /usr/local/bin/awsUsing the -b option allows you to use the AWS CLI from any directory.Installation on Amazon LinuxThe AWS Command Line Interface comes preinstalled on both Amazon Linux and Amazon Linux 2. Below are the steps to install:1. Identify currently installed version:$ aws --version aws-cli/1.16.116 Python/3.6.8 Linux/4.14.77-81.59.amzn2.x86_64 botocore/1.12.1062. Use pip3 to install the latest version of the AWS CLI. If you run the command from within a Python virtual environment (venv), then you don't need to use the --user option.$ pip3 install --upgrade --user awscli3. Add the install location to the beginning of the PATH variable.$ export PATH=/home/ec2-user/.local/bin:$PATH4. 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SSHing into Ubuntu EC2 instance post blocking port 22 with UFW - Cloud Computing

IntroductionThis blog is in reference to a troubleshooting situation in Amazon Web Services when you have configured firewall setting in your ubuntu ec2 or remote instance and is not able to login via PuTTY through SSH as the instance. Here, we will see how to insert SSH into the instance in a certain situation when you are logged out of that instance.During configuration of SSL security, we may accidentally or purposely block SSH for the instance to make the instance secure. But, what if we again want the same instance to SSH for certain changes.  Below is the highlighted configuration of the instance. Here, you can see that all the instances have all ports opened to everything.Here are the configuration changes which you have made on the login into instance:$ sudo apt-get update $ sudo apt-get install nginx $ sudo apt-get install ufw  Check UFW Status and Rules At any time, you can check the status of UFW with this command:$ sudo ufw status verbose By default, UFW will be disabled so you should see something like this:Output: Status: inactive If UFW is active, the output will say that it's active, and it will list the rules that are set. For example, if the firewall is set to allow SSH (port 22) connections from anywhere, the output might look something like this:Output: Status: active Logging: on (low) Default: deny (incoming), allow (outgoing), disabled (routed) New profiles: skip To                         Action      From --                         ------      ---- 22/tcp                     ALLOW IN Anywhere $ sudo ufw deny ssh $ sudo ufw status verbose Output: Status: active Logging: on (low) Default: deny (incoming), allow (outgoing), disabled (routed) New profiles: skip To                         Action      From --                         ------      ---- 22/tcp                     DENY    Anywhere If you kicked or logged out of the instance once the changes are done, you will be seeing the below results.On SSH into the instance with your Public DNS through PuTTY below are the results which you are seeing as an error i.e. Network error: Connection Timed Out  Below error shows that even after all ports were opened outside, the instance is not able to SSH because of firewall software of Ubuntu at the system level. Let’s see how to resolve this kind of system related issue.Solution to the issue:Step 1: Take an image of the EC2 instance by selecting the instance ->Image-Create ImageStep 2: Provide specification Image name, tick on no reboot and push the create image buttonStep 3: Then Select the image and click on launchStep 4: Go to instance type, select and click on NextStep 5: In the configuration instance, write the below commands under Advanced Details and click on next:#!/bin/bash sudo ufw allow ssh sudo ufw allow 22 sudo ufw allow 443 sudo ufw allow 8080 sudo ufw allow 80 sudo ufw status  sudo ufw enable Step 6: Click next and next tab and add security group similar as providedStep 7: Review and launch the instance and then try to SSH to the instance through PuTTY. You will be now able to add SSH inside the instance with this and you can terminate the old instance as the new instance with all the setup same as that of the old instance without any issue except the public IP and private IP change.Best Practices of Firewall Configuration & Port Blocking:Ensure that the Security Groups will allow a specific IP addresses which are within the VPN Range of the Environment.Use of NACL for allowing and blocking the IP addresses or subnets for a specific Port by using allow and deny rules. A network ACL contains a numbered list of rules that we evaluate in order, starting with the lowest numbered rule. This helps to determine whether traffic is allowed in or out of any subnet associated with the network ACL. The highest number that you can use for a rule is 32766. We recommend that you start by creating rules in increments (for example, increments of 10 or 100) so that you can insert new rules.Use of Bastion Host for accessing critical servers and environment is always a better option to increase the security of the system or environment. We hope that this article gave you a clear understanding of how AWS services work. You can understand how cloud computing works by making yourself familiar with these services. To learn more about AWS, you can check out the other blogs and the AWS certification course by KnowledgeHut.
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SSHing into Ubuntu EC2 instance post blocking port...

IntroductionThis blog is in reference to a trouble... Read More