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How to Hack a Web Server?

Over the past decade, more individuals have access to the internet than ever before. Many organizations develop web-based applications, which their users can use to interact with them. But improper configuration and poorly written codes in web servers are a threat and can be used to gain unauthorized access to the servers' sensitive data. This article tries to give an overview on Web Servers. We will be covering some topics which include working of a server, top web servers in the industry,web server vulnerabilities, web server attacks, tools and some counter measures to protect against such attacks. Among the biggest web server attacks was the breach of GitHub in 2018.                                 GitHub is the most popular online code management service used by millions of developers. On February 28, 2018 it was hit by the largest ever DDoS attack  The platform was not prepared for the massive influx of traffic, which peaked at a record-breaking 1.3 terabits per second. In this attack, there was no involvement of botnets, but instead, attackers used a method called mem caching; a caching system used to speed up websites and networks. The attackers could spoof GitHub’s IP address and then massively amplify the traffic levels directed at the platform. Luckily, within 10 minutes of the attack the company could contain and stop the attack from continuing as the company was using a DDoS Protection Service. What are Web Servers? Web servers are hardware, computer, or software, used to host websites. Web servers run on various operating systems connected to the back-end database and run various applications. The use of Web Servers has increased in past years as most online services are implemented as web applications. Web servers are mostly used in web hosting or the hosting of data for websites and web applications. How does Web Server work?  A web server can be accessed through a websites' domain name.  It ensures delivering the site's content to the requesting user by using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). A Web server can be considered to be a hardware that is used to store or host the Web server's software and files related to websites. So a web server can be used to indicate the hardware or software or both together. It is used in the transfer of files, email communications, and for many other purposes. Web servers are so powerful that they can efficiently deliver the same file or any other file to thousands of website visitors simultaneously. Web Server Security Issue Web Servers may be vulnerable to network-level attacks and operating system attacks. Web Server as a hardware is used to store Web server software and files related to websites such as images, scripts, etc. Usually, an attacker will target vulnerabilities in the configuration of the web server and exploit it. Some Vulnerabilities may include : Inappropriate permissions of the directory Lack of security Bugs Misconfigured SSL certificates Enables unnecessary services Default setup Top 3 standard Web Server software Apache HTTP Server - This is the most common server used in the industry. Apache Software Foundation develops it and it is a free and open-source software for Windows, Mac OS, Linux, and many other Operating systems.  Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) - Microsoft develops this software for Microsoft platforms. It is not free or open-source. Nginx - This free and open-source software was created by Igor Sysoev and publicly released in 2004. This web server can also be used as a reverse proxy, load balancer, mail proxy, and HTTP cache. Web Server Attacks      Web Server Attacks include many techniques. Some of them are provided below: Dos/DDoS -   Denial of Service where an attacker attacks by sending numerous service request packets overwhelming the servicing capability of the web server, resulting in crashing and unavailability for the users. DNS Server Hijacking -  DNS Server Hijacking, is also known as DNS redirection, where an attacker modifies DNS configurations. DNS redirection's primary use is pharming, where attackers display unwanted ads to generate some revenue, and Phishing--where attackers show fake websites to steal credentials.  DNS Amplification Attack -  A DNS Amplification Attack happens when an attacker spoofs the lookup request to the DNS Server with the DNS recursive method. The size of the requests results in a Denial of Service attack. Directory Traversal Attacks -  Directory traversal, also is known as Path Traversal, is an HTTP attack that allows attackers to access restricted directories and reveal sensitive information about the system using dot and slash sequences. Man in the Middle Attack -  A Man in the Middle / Sniffing attack happens when an attacker positions himself between a user and the application to sniff the packets. The attacker's goal is to steal sensitive information such as login credentials, credit card details, etc. Phishing Attacks -  A Phishing attack is a social engineering attack to obtain sensitive, confidential information such as usernames, passwords, credit card numbers, etc. It is a practice of fraudulent attempts that appear to come from a reputable source. Scammers mostly use emails and text messages to trick you in a phishing attack. Website Defacement - Website Defacement is an attack where an attacker changes the website/web page's visual appearance with their messages. SQL injection attack is mainly used in web defacement. An attacker can add SQL strings to craft a query maliciously and exploit the webserver.  Web Server Misconfiguration -  Web Server Misconfiguration is when unnecessary services are enabled, and default configurations are being used. The attacker may identify weaknesses in terms of remote functions or default certifications, and can exploit them. An attacker can easily compromise systems by some attacks such as SQL Injection, Command Injection. HTTP Response Splitting Attacks -  HTTP Response Splitting is a straightforward attack when the attacker sends a splitting request to the server, which results in the splitting of a response into two responses by the server. The second response is in the hand of the attacker and is easily redirected to the malicious website. Web Cache Poisoning -  A web cache is an information technology for storing web documents such as web pages, passwords and images temporarily. Web Cache Poisoning is a technique where the attacker sends fake entry requests to the server, wipes out all the server's actual caches and redirects the user to the malicious website. SSH Brute Force Attacks -  Brute force is where an attacker uses trial and error to guess login info by submitting many passwords or paraphrases. In an SSH Brute force attack, the intruder brute forces the SSH tunnel to use an encrypted tunnel. The encrypted tunnel is for communicating between the hosts. Hence, the attacker gains unauthorized access to the tunnel. Web Server Password Cracking Attacks -  In this attack, the attacker cracks the server password and uses it to perform more attacks. Some of the common password cracking tools are Hydra, John the Ripper, Hashcat, Aircrack, etc. Hacking Methodology Information Gathering Information Gathering is a process of gathering different information about the victim/target by using various platforms such as Social engineering, internet surfing, etc. Footprinting  Footprinting is a crucial phase where an attacker may use different tools to gather information about the target. In this phase, an attacker uses passive methods to find information about the victim before performing an attack. The attacker keeps minimum interactions with the victim to avoid detection and alerting the target of the attack. Footprinting can quickly reveal the vulnerabilities of the target system and can exploit them. There are various methods to gather information such as Whois, Google Searching, Operating system detection, network enumeration, etc.  Web Server Footprinting  In webserver footprinting, information is gathered using some specific tools that are focused on web servers such as Maltego,httprecon, Nessus, etc. resulting in details like operating system, running services, type, applications, etc. 1. Vulnerability Scanning -  Vulnerability scanning is the next process taken after performing footprinting to precisely target the attack . A vulnerability scanner is a computer program made to discover system weaknesses in computers and networks. Some methods used in vulnerability scanning are port scanning, OS detection, network services, etc. Common tools used for scanning are Nmap, Nikto, Nessus, and many more. Different Types of Vulnerability Scanning Vulnerability Scanning is classified into two types: unauthenticated and authenticated scans. Authenticated Scan: In this, the tester logs in as a network user and finds the vulnerabilities that a regular user can encounter. He also checks all the possible attacks by which a hacker can take benefit. Unauthenticated Scan: In this, the tester performs all the scans that a hacker would likely do, avoiding direct access to the network. These points can reveal how to get access to a network without signing in. 2. Session Hijacking -  Session Hijacking/ cookie hijacking is an exploitation of the web session. In this attack, the attacker takes over the users' sessions to gain unauthorized access to get information about its services. Session hijacking mostly applies to web applications and browser sessions.  The attacker needs to know the Session-Id (session key ) to perform session hijacking successfully. It can be obtained by stealing the session or just by clicking on some malicious links provided by the attacker. Once the attacker gets the key, he can take over the session using just the same session key, and the server will now treat the attacker's connection as the initial session.  3. Password Attacks -  Password cracking is a method of extracting passwords to gain authorized access to the legitimate user's target system. Password cracking can be performed using social engineering attack, dictionary attack, or password guessing or stealing the stored information that can help obtain passwords that give access to the system. Password Attacks are classified as: Non-Electronic Attack  Active Online Attack Passive Online Attack Default Passwords Offline Attack Defensive measures to Protect Webserver   For Securing a web server from internal and external attacks or any other threat, the essential recommendation is to keep it in a secure zone. Security devices like firewalls, IDS, and IPS must be deployed. Maintaining the servers in an isolated environment protects them from other threats.  Website Change Detection System is a technique used to detect any unexpected activity or changes in the Web server. Scripting is focused on inspecting any modifications made in the files used to detect hacking attempts.  To defend a web server from attack, do ensure that services on the web server are minimized. Disable all unnecessary and insecure ports. Always allow encrypted traffic only. Disable tracking. Continuously monitor your traffic to ensure there is no unauthorized activity. Use Port 443 HTTPS over 80 HTTP to secure web browser communication. Conclusion: In this article, we learnt about working of the web server, security issues, and hacking methodologies with various examples. As an ethical hacker it is important to know about the common web server attacks, and understand the use of best practices and defensive measures to protect web servers against any attack. 

How to Hack a Web Server?

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How to Hack a Web Server?

Over the past decade, more individuals have access to the internet than ever before. Many organizations develop web-based applications, which their users can use to interact with them. But improper configuration and poorly written codes in web servers are a threat and can be used to gain unauthorized access to the servers' sensitive data. 

This article tries to give an overview on Web Servers. We will be covering some topics which include working of a servertop web servers in the industry,web server vulnerabilitiesweb server attackstools and some counter measures to protect against such attacks. 

Among the biggest web server attacks was the breach of GitHub in 2018.                                 

GitHub is the most popular online code management service used by millions of developers. On February 28, 2018 it was hit by the largest ever DDoS attack  The platform was not prepared for the massive influx of traffic, which peaked at a record-breaking 1.3 terabits per second. 

In this attack, there was no involvement of botnets, but instead, attackers used a method called mem caching; a caching system used to speed up websites and networks. The attackers could spoof GitHub’s IP address and then massively amplify the traffic levels directed at the platform. 

Luckily, within 10 minutes of the attack the company could contain and stop the attack from continuing as the company was using DDoS Protection Service. 

What are Web Servers? 

Web servers are hardware, computer, or software, used to host websites. Web serverrun on various operating systems connected to the back-end database and run various applications. The use of Web Servers has increased in past years as most online services are implemented as web applications. Web servers are mostly used in web hosting or the hosting of data for websites and web applications. 

How does Web Server work?  

How does Web Server work?  A web server can be accessed through a websites' domain name.  It ensures delivering the site's content to the requesting user by using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Web server can be considered to be a hardware that is used to store or host the Web server's software and files related to websites. So a web server can be used to indicate the hardware or software or both together. It is used in the transfer of files, email communications, and for many other purposes. Web servers are so powerful that they can efficiently deliver the same file or any other file to thousands of website visitors simultaneously. 

Web Server Security Issue 

Web Servermay be vulnerable to network-level attacks and operating system attacks. Web Server as hardware is used to store Web server software and files related to websites such as images, scripts, etc. Usually, an attacker will target vulnerabilities in the configuration of the web server and exploit it. 

Some Vulnerabilities may include : 

  • Inappropriate permissions of the directory 
  • Lack of security 
  • Bugs 
  • Misconfigured SSL certificates 
  • Enables unnecessary services 
  • Default setup 

Top 3 standard Web Server software 

  • Apache HTTP Server - This is the most common server used in the industry. Apache Software Foundation develops it and it is a free and open-source software for Windows, Mac OS, Linux, and many other Operating systems.  
  • Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) - Microsoft develops this software for Microsoft platforms. It is not free or open-source. 
  • Nginx - This free and open-source software was created by Igor Sysoev and publicly released in 2004. This web server can also be used as a reverse proxy, load balancer, mail proxy, and HTTP cache. 

Web Server Attacks      

Web Server Attacks include many techniques. Some of them are provided below: 

  • Dos/DDoS -   

Denial of Service where an attacker attacks by sending numerous service request packets overwhelming the servicing capability of the web serverresulting in crashing and unavailability for the users. 

  • DNS Server Hijacking -  

DNS Server Hijacking, is also known as DNS redirection, where an attacker modifies DNS configurations. DNS redirection's primary use is pharming, where attackers display unwanted ads to generate some revenue, and Phishing--where attackers show fake websites to steal credentials.  

  • DNS Amplification Attack -  

DNS Amplification Attack happens when an attacker spoofs the lookup request to the DNS Server with the DNS recursive method. The size of the requests results in a Denial of Service attack. 

  • Directory Traversal Attacks -  

Directory traversal, also is known as Path Traversal, is an HTTP attack that allows attackers to access restricted directories and reveal sensitive information about the system using dot and slash sequences. 

  • Man in the Middle Attack -  

A Man in the Middle / Sniffing attack happens when an attacker positions himself between a user and the application to sniff the packets. The attacker's goal is to steal sensitive information such as login credentials, credit card details, etc. 

  • Phishing Attacks -  

A Phishing attack is a social engineering attack to obtain sensitive, confidential information such as usernames, passwords, credit card numbers, etc. It is a practice of fraudulent attempts that appear to come from a reputable source. Scammers mostly use emails and text messages to trick you in a phishing attack. 

  • Website Defacement - 

Website Defacement is an attack where an attacker changes the website/web page's visual appearance with their messages. SQL injection attack is mainly used in web defacement. An attacker can add SQL strings to craft a query maliciously and exploit the webserver.  

  • Web Server Misconfiguration -  

Web Server Misconfiguration is when unnecessary services are enabled, and default configurations are being used. The attacker may identify weaknesses in terms of remote functions or default certifications, and can exploit them. An attacker can easily compromise systems by some attacks such as SQL Injection, Command Injection. 

  • HTTP Response Splitting Attacks -  

HTTP Response Splitting is a straightforward attack when the attacker sends a splitting request to the server, which results in the splitting of a response into two responses by the server. The second response is in the hand of the attacker and is easily redirected to the malicious website. 

  • Web Cache Poisoning -  

A web cache is an information technology for storing web documents such as web pages, passwords and images temporarily. Web Cache Poisoning is a technique where the attacker sends fake entry requests to the serverwipes out all the server's actual caches and redirects the user to the malicious website. 

  • SSH Brute Force Attacks -  

Brute force is where an attacker uses trial and error to guess login info by submitting many passwords or paraphrases. In an SSH Brute force attack, the intruder brute forces the SSH tunnel to use an encrypted tunnel. The encrypted tunnel is for communicating between the hosts. Hence, the attacker gains unauthorized access to the tunnel. 

  • Web Server Password Cracking Attacks -  

In this attack, the attacker cracks the server password and uses it to perform more attacks. Some of the common password cracking tools are Hydra, John the Ripper, Hashcat, Aircrack, etc. 

Hacking Methodology 

  • Information Gathering 

Information Gathering is a process of gathering different information about the victim/target by using various platforms such as Social engineering, internet surfing, etc. How to Hack a Web Server?

  • Footprinting 

 Footprinting is a crucial phase where an attacker may use different tools to gather information about the target. In this phase, an attacker uses passive methods to find information about the victim before performing an attack. The attacker keeps minimum interactions with the victim to avoid detection and alerting the target of the attack. Footprinting can quickly reveal the vulnerabilities of the target system and can exploit them. There are various methods to gather information such as Whois, Google Searching, Operating system detection, network enumeration, etc.  

  • Web Server Footprinting  

In webserver footprinting, information is gathered using some specific tools that are focused on web servers such as Maltego,httprecon, Nessus, etc. resulting in details like operating system, running services, type, applications, etc. 

1. Vulnerability Scanning -  

Vulnerability scanning is the next process taken after performing footprinting to precisely target the attack . A vulnerability scanner is a computer program made to discover system weaknesses in computers and networks. Some methods used in vulnerability scanning are port scanning, OS detection, network services, etc. Common tools used for scanning are Nmap, Nikto, Nessus, and many more. 

Different Types of Vulnerability Scanning 

Vulnerability Scanning is classified into two types: unauthenticated and authenticated scans. 

  • Authenticated Scan: In this, the tester login as a network user and finds the vulnerabilities that a regular user can encounter. He also checks all the possible attacks by which a hacker can take benefit. 
  • Unauthenticated Scan: In this, the tester performs all the scans that a hacker would likely do, avoiding direct access to the network. These points can reveal how to get access to a network without signing in. 

2. Session Hijacking -  

Session Hijacking/ cookie hijacking is an exploitation of the web session. In this attack, the attacker takes over the users' sessions to gain unauthorized access to get information about its services. Session hijacking mostly applies to web applications and browser sessions.  

The attacker needs to know the Session-Id (session key ) to perform session hijacking successfully. It can be obtained by stealing the session or just by clicking on some malicious links provided by the attacker. Once the attacker gets the key, he can take over the session using just the same session key, and the server will now treat the attacker's connection as the initial session.  

3. Password Attacks -  

Password cracking is a method of extracting passwords to gain authorized access to the legitimate user's target system. Password cracking can be performed using social engineering attack, dictionary attack, or password guessing or stealing the stored information that can help obtain passwords that give access to the system. 

Password Attacks are classified as: 

  • Non-Electronic Attack  
  • Active Online Attack 
  • Passive Online Attack 
  • Default Passwords 
  • Offline Attack 

Defensive measures to Protect Webserver   

For Securing a web server from internal and external attacks or any other threat, the essential recommendation is to keep it in secure zone. Security devices like firewalls, IDS, and IPS must be deployed. Maintaining the servers in an isolated environment protects them from other threats.  

Website Change Detection System is a technique used to detect any unexpected activity or changes in the Web server. Scripting is focused on inspecting any modifications made in the files used to detect hacking attempts.  

To defend a web server from attack, do ensure that services on the web server are minimized. Disable all unnecessary and insecure ports. Always allow encrypted traffic only. Disable tracking. Continuously monitor your traffic to ensure there is no unauthorized activity. Use Port 443 HTTPS over 80 HTTP to secure web browser communication. 

How to Hack a Web Server?

Conclusion: 

In this article, we learnt about working of the web server, security issues, and hacking methodologies with various examples. As an ethical hacker it is important to know about the common web server attacks, and understand the use of best practices and defensive measures to protect web servers against any attack. 

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Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com

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How much do Ethical Hackers Earn?

IntroductionTechnology has flourished at break neck speed in the past decade. Inventions and innovations have transformed the way we live and work. We live in an interconnected world where everything is online. While this has made our lives easier, it has also made us vulnerable to sophisticated cyber criminals, who at their malicious best attack not just an individual but even a company, and in more brazen attacks even a nation's security and financial health.According to the latest report by Verizon, 70% of cybercrimes were caused by malicious hackers and outsiders. With a lot of sensitive data now being present online, the perception threat has steadily grown over the years.One of the foremost methods to prevent cybercrime is to reinforce the security of IT systems. Moreover, adding a dedicated team of ethical hackers to the workforce can help fix loopholes and prevent malicious attacks. With the surge in cybercrime, the need for cybersecurity has increased. This in turn has led to a rise in the demand for skilled ethical hackers and information security professionals.What is the CEH certification?The CEH(Certified Ethical Hacking) credential from EC-Council demonstrates that you have hands-on knowledge of niche techniques used by security professionals and hackers to prevent cyber-attacks. CEH also provides skills to assess the security aspects, scan the infrastructure, and detect vulnerabilities in the organizations. With the CEH course, you can:Enter into the industry as a security professionalLearn the hacker mentality to get a step ahead of cybercriminalsBoost your career in IT securityImprove your skills and knowledge which is a primary requirement for career advancementThe demand for Ethical HackersAccording to Forbes, "in this current year of 2020-21, the Global security market is worth $173 billion and within the next 5 years this will grow to around $270 billion." Statistics by the Australian Cyber Security Growth Network show that organizations across the globe are expected to raise their security budget by 8% annually.Source: austcyber.comMalicious cyber activities are increasing around the world, as cybercriminals are using sophisticated strategies for infiltration of systems and networks. Therefore, the demand for cybersecurity experts or ethical hackers will continue to increase.Opportunities for an ethical hackerIn India alone, more than 20,000 websites faced defacement, DDoS, or ransomware attacks just in 2019 as per the report of CERT(Indian Computer Emergency Response Team).Therefore, from private organizations to government entities, everyone needs an ethical hacker or security professional to counter unauthorized hacking and strengthen their security needs. As per the NASSCOM report, there will be 72000 security professionals in the coming years.Types of roles and responsibilities of an Ethical HackerCybersecurity experts will get various types of work opportunities from small scale organizations to giant tech corporations, government agencies, research organizations, and many others.The work of ethical hackers will differ and is not limited to the size and requirement of the organization, but also the skills and experience of hackers. However, here are some overall responsibilities expected from ethical hackers.To protect IT infrastructures, networks, devices, and data from cybercriminalsMonitor application and network performanceTo perform security tests to validate the strength of application, devices, and networkImplement information security management system to be followed by the entire organizationTo set detection and prevention facilities and make a barrier from outer /unauthorized accessTo stay connected with top management with updated risk management and business continuity plans.To perform all the above tasks and operations there are multiple designations hired by organizations, ranging from entry-level security personnel to CISO (Chief Information Security Officer). This pyramid shows the various levels of roles for cyber security professionals.Job roles and salariesEthical hackers can take on a variety of roles.Consulting - As explained earlier, almost all organizations require security professionals to secure their network,  data, devices, etc. Some organizations prefer to outsource the security solution rather than hire on their own.  In this case, the organization expects customized security solutions and suggestions and advice on protection of their assets against cyber-attacks.Bug bounty - Many organizations and tech giants organize bounty programs for hackers to find out vulnerabilities in their applications or websites and offer attractive cash prices.Training - Ethical hackers can provide training to professionals and students for advancement in their careers. These types of training also help to spread awareness in the society against cybercrime and to keep them secure from any potential fraud.Events - Tech giants like Tesla invites hackers to hack their cars. There are similar events for hackers to perform their skills and earn prizes, or in some cases jobs with handsome packages.The salary range for ethical hackersLucrative salaries are the most attractive part of this profession. Salaries in this field vary based on location, designation, skill, and experience. As we have seen in the pyramid earlier, there are multiple roles in the security field, with packages increasing from bottom to top. All organizations value their security, and are ready to pay top dollar for qualified candidates.As per a survey, the average salary of an ethical hacker or information security officer is INR 12,00,000 per annum with 3-5 years of experience. This is just an average figure. In some cases in New Delhi & Mumbai, suitable candidates got paid as much as up to INR 18,00,000 p.a. even without work experience.The package information mentioned above was just for India. Let's have a look at the below table to understand the worldwide salary ratio based on designation and experience.Do you have the skills for it?Before you decide to pursue ethical hacking as a profession, here are some skills you have to master:FocusPatienceStrategy making abilityGood CommunicationCuriosityDisciplineZest for learningThinking out of the boxPositive attitudeTop 10 technical skills:-Excellent computer skills  LinuxNetworking & InfrastructureProgramming skillsDatabase management systemsCryptographyCloud technologiesWeb applicationWireless technologiesPenetration TestingImportance of ethicsHave you heard the term 'Royal Guards'?  It refers to an elite group of highly skilled warriors who act as a monarch’s personal security guards. The monarch and the kingdom trust them and feel safe while surrounded by royal guards.In this field as well, an ethical hacker or a team of security professionals act as royal guards of the organization. Organizations trust the security professionals expecting security and implicit loyalty. Security professionals must be highly ethical, as they can have access to the most vital information systems, data, or any other assets. An ethical hacker must follow ethical /genuine practices during the entire employment term (and even after leaving a company) and uphold the trust of the management.EC-Council has written 19 steps of  'Code - of - Ethics' which must be followed by all ethical hackers to maintain the dignity of the profession.Below is a sample:As an ethical hacker, you must keep private and confidential information gained in your professional work (in particular as it pertains to client lists and client personal information). You should not collect, give, sell, or transfer any personal information (such as name, e-mail address, Social Security number, or another unique identifier) to a third party without the client's prior consent.ConclusionHighly skilled hackers will always be in demand because in the digital age, all organizations need to stay protected from hackers at any cost. This is a career that is surely future-proof!
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How much do Ethical Hackers Earn?

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The Top Information Security Certifications to Consider

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As a CISA certified auditor, you will have adequate knowledge to identify risks in target systems and fix them before malicious attacks occur.Certified Information Security Manager (CISM)The CISM certification, also from ISACA, indicates your expertise in multiple domains like information security governance, program development and management, risk management and incident management. It is highly recommended for security consultants and managers who have technical expertise in information security and controls. CISM is a natural fit after the CISSP certification, especially for a smooth transition into managing and overseeing information security at a strategic level.Certified in Risk and Information Systems Control (CRISC)This certification from ISACA validates your capacity to identify and manage IT risks while implementing and maintaining information systems controls. A highly-valued credential, the course explores various topics like IT Risk Identification, IT Risk Assessment, Risk Response and Mitigation Risk and Control Monitoring and Reporting.ISO 27001:2013 LI/LAISO27001 is a widely recognized certification in the information security industry. It has multiple related modules that explore various information security controls.There are two job titles you can pursue after this certification: Lead Implementer and Lead Auditor. The Lead Implementor is responsible for implementing the security measures in target systems as per ISO 27001:2013 standards. The Lead Auditor is hired by certification bodies to audit organizations that have applied for ISO certification and check if measures have been implemented properly.Certified Penetration Tester (CPT)Issued by the Information Assurance Certification Review Board (IACRB), this program trains you to become a well-versed penetration tester. Penetration testing or pen testing is the assessment of computers, application security architecture, and networks to detect loopholes that are prone to malicious hacking. The course trains you in Pen Testing, Network Testing and attacks, Windows vulnerability, Linux/Unix vulnerability, Enumeration, Web App Testing and Wireless Testing.CompTIA PenTest+This is another leading certification in cybersecurity from CompTIA.org. It offers security+ as a beginner certification, and Pentest+ as an advance level certification. CompTIA Pentest+ covers the entire process of vulnerability assessment starting from information gathering, scanning, exploitation, and reporting.This certificate will give you information about:Exploits and its useVulnerability enumerationInformation about BASH, PowerShell(windows), Python scriptReport CreationLicensed Penetration Tester (LPT)Yet another certification provided by EC-Council, is the Expert level Pen testing certification. This is an intensive certification program meant for expert cybersecurity professionals. Through this course, you will learn how to perform advanced penetration testing concepts such as fuzzing, PowerShell scripting, BASH, Python, Perl, and Ruby environments, scripting, and mobile device penetration testing, among others.Considering the above certifications, the onus to choose the right one is upon every aspiring cybersecurity professional out there. For a smooth learning journey, get started with a basic training program like CEH and gradually move on to the rest. Choose a recognized training provider with years of experience to help you chase your career goals with confidence.
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The Top Information Security Certifications to Con...

Cybercrimes have the ability to cripple even robus... Read More

Introduction to Vulnerability Analysis in Ethical Hacking

IntroductionIn this article we will discuss the various aspects of Vulnerability analysis in ethical hacking. We will walk you through common examples of vulnerability, various lists and models to prevent them. The models we will be discussing are firewall, password, logical bombing and web hijacking, and in this article, we will talk about the methods to protect systems from these vulnerabilities.What is Vulnerability?Vulnerability can be defined as an issue in the software code that a hacker can exploit to  harm the systems. It can be a gap in the implementation of cybersecurity procedures or a weakness in the controls.What is an example of vulnerability?Examples of vulnerabilities exist in every industry. These include:Unauthorized network access by Hackers due to a weak FirewallCracking of Wi-Fi PasswordsExposure of sensitive data due to lack of application securityCredit card data, Health RecordsSecurity misconfigurationMisconfiguration of passwordsInsecure cryptographic storageWhat are the 4 main types of vulnerabilities?The  4 main types of vulnerabilities are:Faulty defenses – Poor defense measures pave the way for easy intrusion by hackers.  This may be due to weak authentication, authorization, and encryption.Resource management not adequate –The chances of buffer overflow and the potential to have many vulnerabilities are greater when there is inadequate resource management.Insecure connections – If the connection between the system, application and networks is insecure, there is a higher probability of many threats like SQL injection.End user errors and misuse – In many cases, the errors are caused by humans and misuse of the systems.What are vulnerability lists?Below are the various types of Vulnerability lists as per OWASP. There are around 60 in number at present, and the list is growing:Allowing Domains or Accounts to ExpireWhen domain names have expired, the hacker may buy them and set up a mail server. The hacker can find out the incoming mails and get to know the details.Buffer OverflowA process where there is more data added to the buffer and the excess data becomes corrupted and susceptible to vulnerabilities.Business logic vulnerabilityThe software code may be missing a security control like authentications, encryption, or authorization.CRLF InjectionCarriage Return Line Feed – Can be done by modifying the HTTP parameter of the URL.CSV InjectionWhen untrusted CSV files are embedded to the websites causing vulnerabilities.Catch Null Pointer ExceptionWhen the program contains the null pointer, it is highly risky.Covert storage channelThis can help the attackers easily and often happens due to faulty implementation.Deserialization of untrusted dataInjection of malicious data into the applications to stop execution of programs.Directory Restriction ErrorHappens due to the improper use of CHROOT.Doubly freeing memoryThis error occurs when free() is called more than once in the memory address.Empty String PasswordEmpty string password is highly insecure.Expression Language InjectionInjection happens when attacker-controlled data enters an EL interpreter.Full Trust CLR Verification issue Exploiting Passing Reference Types by ReferenceCreate a file called by ValueTypeTest.cs and compile it using csc by Value Type Test.csc.Heartbleed BugCatastrophic bug in OpenSSLImproper Data ValidationMultiple validation forms with the same name indicate that validation logic is not up-to-date.Improper pointer subtractionThe subtraction of one pointer from another to determine the size is dependent on the assumption that both pointers exist in the same memory chunk.Information exposure through query strings in url Information exposure through query strings in URL is when sensitive data is passed to parameters in the URL.Injection problemThe basic form of this flaw involves the injection of control-plane data into the data-plane in order to alter the control flow of the processInsecure Compiler OptimizationImproperly scrubbing sensitive data from memory can compromise security.Insecure RandomnessInsecure randomness errors occur when a function that can produce predictable values is used as a source of randomness in security-sensitive context.Insecure Temporary FileCreating and using insecure temporary files can leave application and system data vulnerable to attacks.Insecure Third-Party Domain AccessOccurs when an application contains content provided from a 3rd party resource that is delivered without any type of content scrub.Insecure TransportThe application configuration should ensure that SSL is used for all access-controlled pages.Insufficient EntropyPseudo Random Number Generators are susceptible to suffering from insufficient entropy when they are initialized, because entropy data may not be available to them yet.Insufficient Session-ID LengthSession identifiers should be at least 128 bits long to prevent brute-force session guessing attacksLeast Privilege ViolationThe elevated privilege level required to perform operations such as chroot () should be dropped immediately after the operation is performed.Memory leakA memory leak is an unintentional form of memory consumption whereby the developer fails to free an allocated block of memory when no longer needed.Missing Error HandlingMust define a default error page for 404 errors, 500 errorsMissing XML ValidationFailure to enable validation when parsing XML gives an attacker the opportunity to supply malicious input.Multiple admin levelsMultiple level admins may alter the login credentialsOther list of VulnerabilitiesNull DereferenceOWASP .NET Vulnerability ResearchOverly Permissive Regular ExpressionPHP File InclusionPHP Object Injection PRNG Seed ErrorPassword Management Hardcoded PasswordPassword Plaintext StoragePoor Logging PracticePortability FlawPrivacy ViolationProcess ControlReturn Inside Finally BlockSession Variable OverloadingString Termination ErrorUnchecked Error ConditionUnchecked Return Value Missing Check against NullUndefined BehaviorUnreleased ResourceUnrestricted File UploadUnsafe JNIUnsafe Mobile CodeUnsafe function call from a signal handlerUnsafe use of ReflectionUse of Obsolete MethodsUse of hard-coded passwordUsing a broken or risky cryptographic algorithmUsing freed memoryVulnerability templateXML External Entity (XXE) ProcessingWhat is Vulnerability Analysis?Vulnerability analysis is a procedure to check all the vulnerabilities in the systems, computers and other ecosystem tools. The vulnerability analysis helps in the analyzing, recognizing and ranking of the vulnerabilities as per the severity. It helps with the identification and assessment of threat details, enabling us to keep a resolution to protect them from hackers. The analysis can be done for every industry from Healthcare to Retail to IT.Objectives of the Vulnerability analysisTo identify vulnerabilities – Configuration, system, Design, Code, ProcessDocumenting the vulnerabilitiesPreparation of guidance to mitigate the vulnerabilitiesImportance of Vulnerability AnalysisDeep dive insights of the security issuesHelps us understand the risks associated with the entire ecosystemFor security breachesAssets that are prone to cyber attacksSteps for the vulnerability AnalysisHow to check if the organization requires Vulnerability AnalysisTypes of Vulnerability AssessmentNetwork Based ScansTo identify network vulnerabilities. This scan helps to find the vulnerable systems in the wired and wireless networksHost Based ScansThis scan is to identify vulnerabilities in the ports, configuration, server workstations, other hosts and patch historyWireless Network ScansComplete scan on wireless networks to find the vulnerabilitiesApplication ScansTo test all portals and mobile applications for vulnerabilitiesDatabase ScansTo scan all the databases for potential vulnerabilitiesModels of Vulnerability in Ethical HackingFirewall modelInsider attacks -  A Perimeter firewall should be decided and this can take care of the external attacksMissed security patchesWhen the patch management of firewall has not happenedConfiguration issuesIf there are faults in the configuration of firewallDDOS attacksOnly allow legitimate traffic to avoid these attacksPassword modelTo crack the password the hacker uses any of the following – Dictionary, Hybrid model and Brute forceLogical BombingThis usually happens when the hacker uses a malicious code to inject the web application or the cloud infrastructureWeb HijackingThis happens when an unauthorized user tries to access the application bypassing the authorization mechanismProtection from HackingWe need to follow some simple steps to prevent hackingUpdating of Operating systemsInstallation of the proper firewall to prevent intrusionDestroying all personal information from all the web sourcesNo use of Open Wi-FiPassword – Strong password which is not easy to find outSmart emailing – Avoid opening of phishing mailsKeep the sensitive data in the protected environmentIgnore spamShut down the systems after useSecure the networkBack up the dataConclusionIn this article we have discussed the various vulnerabilities that hackers can exploit to gain unauthorized access to a system. Best practices and techniques on how to find the vulnerabilities are also discussed. We have discussed the analysis of vulnerabilities and how it helps in preventing the system from being hacked. Finally, we have discussed models of vulnerabilities in ethical hacking and the ways to keep ourselves protected from hacking.
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Introduction to Vulnerability Analysis in Ethical ...

IntroductionIn this article we will discuss the va... Read More