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Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2®

Apart from Project Management Professional (PMP)®, PRINCE2® (PRojects IN Controlled Environments) is one of the most widely used methods for managing projects across the globe. It is a very methodical way of managing projects based on experience drawn from various projects and from the contributions of numerous people who worked using PRINCE2, such as project sponsors, project managers, project teams, academics, trainers and consultants. Its generic design can be applied to any project regardless of project scale, type, organization, geography or culture. It separates the project management work from specialist contributions, like design or construction Focus is on describing what needs to be done, instead of prescribing how project is to be done. PRINCE2®: is based more on governance for project management is tailored to meet the needs of the organization  is implemented alongside industry-specific models e.g. ’engineering models’ or ‘development lifecycles’ helps participants focus on the viability of the project in relation to objectives mentioned in the business case makes sure that everybody involved is represented in planning and decision-making, appropriately inspires to learn lessons from experience in the projects and helps in continual improvement within the organizations.PRINCE2 in Project Management Some characteristics of project work that differentiates itself from business as usual (BAU) are:- Change - Projects are a great catalyst for introducing change. Temporary - Projects have a definite start and a definite end.   Cross-functional - people having different skills work together Unique - each project will be unique such as it involves a different customer, a different time. a different team, a different location Uncertainty – All projects carry a very high uncertainty – threats and opportunities. What are six project constraints that we wish to control throughout a projectCosts – spending depends on the budget given to the project manager Timescales - A question the project manager is most frequently asked: What is your expected project completion date? Quality - products must be fit for the purpose for which they are produced. Scope – What is in-scope and out-of-scope of the project Benefits – What is the reason for doing this? A very crystal-clear understanding of the purpose of the project is required by the project manager Risk - All projects are risky but project manager must be aware of exactly how much risk we are  in a position to accept PRINCE2 assumes that there will be - a customer who will specify the requirement of a product  a supplier who will provide all skilled resources to deliver that product PRINCE2 StructureThe PRINCE2 Seven Principles are:- 1. Continued business justification - A PRINCE2 project has continued business justification. All PRINCE2 projects require that: for starting the project, there has to be a justifiable reason this justification must be recorded and approved the justification must remain valid and is revalidated, throughout the project life-cycle to ensure that the project remains in line with the benefits which contribute to business objectives justification is documented either as a business case document or may use some business plans or any other similar document 2. Learn from experience - lessons learned (seek), recorded and acted upon throughout the project. 3. Defined roles and responsibilities - within an organization structure engages the business, user and supplier stakeholder interests 4. Manage by stages - A PRINCE2 project is planned, monitored and controlled on a stage-by-stage basis. In PRINCE2, a project must have at least two management stages: an initiation stage at least one further management stage. 5. Manage by exception - tolerances are defined for each project objective, to set limits for delegating authority. 6. Focus on products – focus is more on the defining the products and delivery of products, including quality requirements.7. Tailor to suit the environment - PRINCE2 can be tailored to suit the project size, complexity, team capability, environment, importance and risk. Project manager and project board will have to make choices including decisions on how PRINCE2 should be applied on the project.PRINCE2 Seven Themes The PRINCE2 Seven Themes are - Business Case (Why?): a project usually starts with an idea or a concept which is then considered to have potential value for the organization concerned. This theme addresses how the idea is developed into a viable investment proposition for the organization and how project management maintains the focus on the organization’s objectives throughout the project. Organization (Who?): organization which commissions the project needs to allocate the work to managers who will be responsible for it and steer it through to completion. Projects are cross-functional. This theme describes the roles and responsibilities the project management team is required to have, in order to manage the project efficiently and effectively. Quality (What?): all participants understand the quality attributes of the products to be delivered and then how the project management will ensure that these requirements are ultimately delivered. Plans (How? How much? When?):  project plan for the project as a whole, will usually be a high-level plan, providing indicative timescales, milestones, cost and resource requirements based on estimates detailed stage plan for the current management stage, aligned with the overall project plan timescales, produced before the start of that stage exception plans show actions performed to recover or come back on track from or avoid a forecast deviation from agreed tolerances, applies to project plan or stage plan a number of work packages are developed using detailed team planRisk (What if?): addresses how project management manages uncertainty. Change (What is the impact?): describes how project management assesses and responds to issues which have a potential impact on any of the baseline aspects of the project such as its plans and completed products. Issues may be instances of a product not meeting its specification or requests for change or unanticipated general problems. Progress (Where are we now? Where are we going? Should we carry on?): addresses the ongoing viability of the plans. This theme monitors actual performance, explains the decision-making process for approving plans and the escalation process if events do not go according to plan. Ultimately, it determines how and whether the project should proceed.PRINCE2 Seven Processes The PRINCE2 Seven Processes are:- Starting Up A Project (SU)  Purposeto ensure that the prerequisites for initiating a project are in place by answering the question: Do we have a viable and worthwhile project?  base information needed to make rational decisions such as commissioning of the project is defined, key roles and responsibilities are identified and resources are allocated and a foundation for detailed planning is made available.Objective: To ensure that: a business justification is documented in an outline business case, for initiating the project necessary authorities exist, for initiating the project project brief is available to define and confirm the scope of the project a feasible project approach is selected after evaluating different delivery approaches individuals are appointed who will undertake the project work  the work required for project initiation is planned and documented in a stage planDirecting A Project (DP)  Purpose: To enable project board  to be accountable for the project’s success by making key decisions and exercising overall control of the project and  delegating day-to-day management of the project to the project managerObjectiveTo ensure that some authority exists to initiate the project, to deliver the products and close the project management direction and control are provided to all concerned throughout the project’s life project remains viable at every stage corporate, programme management or the customer has a transparent interface to the project post-project benefits realization plans are reviewed and managedInitiating A Project (IP)  Purposeto establish a sturdy foundation for the project to understand the work that needs to be done to deliver the project’s products before committing to a large spend Objective: to ensure that there is a common understanding of - what are the reasons for doing the project, what benefits are expected and what are the associated risks what is the scope of the work and what are the products to be delivered how the products will be delivered, when should they be delivered and what would be the cost involved at that point of time What the project decision-making team is comprised of  how the required level of quality is be achieved how baselines can be established and controlled how risks, issues and changes can be identified, assessed and controlled how progress of the project can be monitored and controlled who requires which information, in what format and at what point of timeControlling A Stage (CS)  Controlling A Stage (CS)  Purpose: To assign and monitor work, deal with issues, report progress to the project board and take corrective actions to ensure that the management stage remains within tolerance Objective: to ensure that: proper attention is focused on delivery of the management stage’s products by monitoring to avoid uncontrolled change and loss of focus risks and issues are tracked to keep them under control business case is reviewed at appropriate times agreed products for the management stage are delivered to stated quality standards, within cost, effort and time agreed project management team is focused on delivering within the tolerance level setManaging Product Delivery (MPD)  Purpose: is to control the link between the project manager and the team manager(s). Both agree on requirements for acceptance, execution and delivery. Objective: to ensure that: product related work allocated to the team is authorized and agreed upon first team managers, team members and suppliers are clear about what needs to be produced and what is the expected effort, cost or timescales planned products are delivered to expectations and within tolerances accurate information on progress of product development should be provided to the project manager at an agreed frequency to ensure that expectations are managed Managing a Stage Boundary (SB) Purpose: to enable the project manager to provide the project board with sufficient information to be able to: review the current management stage if it has completed successfully approve the next stage plan review the updated project plan confirm continued business justification and acceptability of the risks Hence, this process should either be executed at the end of or close to the end of each management stage.Objective: is to: give an assurance to the project board that all products produced in the stage plan for the current management stage are developed by the team and approved prepare the next management stage plan review the PID documents and if necessary, update the business case, project plan, project approaches, project management team structure and role descriptions provide all the accurate information required by the project board to assess the continuing viability of the project record any information gathered or lessons learned that can help later management stages of the current project and/or other/future projects request authorization to start the next management stage from the project board For exceptions, the objectives are to: review the PID documents and if necessary, update the customer’s quality expectations, project approaches and controls and role descriptions provide all the accurate information required by the project board to assess the continuing viability of the project prepare an exception plan as directed by the project board without fail and further delay project manager must seek approval to replace the project plan or stage plan for the current management stage with the exception plan Managing a stage boundary is not performed towards the end of the final management stage, except an exception plan may be created on need basis.Closing A Project (CP) Purposeprovide a normal termination point at which acceptance of the project’s product is confirmed and accepted by the user group recognize that objectives set out in the original PID documents have been achieved (or approved changes to the objectives have been achieved), or that the project has nothing more to contributeObjectiveverify that the final product has been accepted by the user  make sure that the operations are able to support the products when the project is disbanded review the performance of the project against its baselines assess any benefits that have been realized during the project cycle and update the benefits management approach to include any post-project benefit reviews ensure that provision has been made to address all open issues and risks, with follow-on action recommendationsTeam roles in PRINCE2 Project Board Members: Executive, Senior Users and Senior Suppliers ResponsibilitiesAccountable for the success or failure of the project Provides unified direction to the project Delegates effectively Facilitates integration Authorizes the funds Effective decision-making Supports the project manager Ensures effective communicationExecutive Appointed by Corporate,  Programme management or Customer Ultimately responsible for the project Key decision maker, buck stops at him Ensures project is focused throughout its life on achieving its objectives Ensures project delivers value for money Ensures project is aligned to corporate strategy. ResponsibilitiesDesign and appoint project management team Oversee development of the Project Brief Oversee development of detailed Business Case Secure funding for the project Hold Senior Supplier accountable for the quality and integrity of the product Hold Senior User accountable for realizing the benefits Monitor and control the progress at strategic level Chair Project Board reviews Project Manager Given authority to run the project on a day to day basis  Ensures that the project produces the required products Responsible for producing the result capable of achieving the benefits as stated in the business case Responsibilities  Produce key project documents Prepare key project reports Maintain key project records Liaise with corporate, programme management or customer Liaise with external suppliers Lead and motivate the project management team Manage information flows between various levels of the project Manage production of the required products Establish and manage the project procedures Authorize Work Packages Advise the Project Board of any deviations from the planSenior User Specifies the needs of those who will use the project’s products. Represents the interests of : Those who will use the project’s products. Those for whom the products will achieve an objective Those who will use the products to deliver benefitsResponsibilitiesProvide the customer’s quality expectations Ensure project products deliver the desired outcomes Ensure that expected benefits are realized Resolve user requirements and priority conflicts Ensure availability of user resources Make decisions on escalated issues Undertake Project Assurance from user perspectiveSenior Supplier Represents interest of those producing the project products Accountable for quality of products delivered by the supplier Responsible for technical integrity of the projectResponsibilitiesAssess the viability of the project Ensure that proposals are realistic Advise on the selection of product methods Ensure that supplier resources are made available Make decisions on escalated issues Resolve supplier requirements and priority conflicts Ensure adherence to quality procedures Undertake Project Assurance from supplier perspective.Project Assurance Covers the primary stakeholder interests Has to be independent of the Project Manager Has sufficient credibility May be from corporate, programme management or customer organization.ResponsibilitiesLiaison between business, user and supplier is maintained Risks are controlled Right people are involved in writing product descriptions Right people are planned and involved in quality inspections Staff are properly trained in quality methods Quality methods are adhered to An acceptable solution is being developed Applicable standards are being used Change Authority Authority for approving responses to requests for change or off-specifications Adequately represents the business, user and supplier interests Has sufficiently credibility Change Authority could be assigned to:  Corporate or Programme management Project Board A nominated person / body Project Manager. ResponsibilitiesReview and approve or reject all requests for change and off-specifications within the delegated limits of authority and change budget set by the Project Board. Refer to the Project Board if any delegated limits of authority or allocated change budget are forecast to be exceeded. Project Support Is mainly concerned with providing administrative services or advice and guidance on the use of project management tools. Is the responsibility of the Project Manager. May be delegated to other roles or a separate role. Project Support and Project Assurance roles must be kept separate. ResponsibilitiesSet up and maintain project files Establish document control procedure Collect data – actuals and forecasts Update plans and maintain them Administer quality review progress Administer project board meetings Assist with compilation of reports Contribute expertise in tools and techniques Maintain key records Administer the configuration management procedure.Team Manager Reports to and takes direction from the Project Manager Responsible to ensure production of products allocated by the Project Manager Reasons for allocating a separate Team Manager : Size of the project Specialist skills or knowledge needed Geographical location, or Preferences of the Project Board. ResponsibilitiesPrepare the Team Plan Produce Checkpoint Reports Plan, monitor and manage the team’s work Ensure progress of team’s work and use of team resources Identify any issues and risks associated with a Work Package Advise Project Manager of any deviations Hand over completed and approved products Liaise with Project Assurance and Project Support roles Plan and manage quality activities relating to team’s work. Types of PRINCE2 documentation Throughout PRINCE2 project, documentation is maintained as management products.  There are three types of management product: baselines, records and reports. Baseline management products: are those that define aspects of the project and, when approved, are subject to change control. These are: Benefits management approach Business case Change control approach Communication management approach Plan (covers project plans, stage plans, exception plans and, optionally, team plans) Product description Project brief Project initiation documentation (PID) Project product description Quality management approach Risk management approach Work package Records management products: are dynamic and they maintain information regarding project progress. These are: Configuration item record Daily log Issue register Lessons log Quality register Risk register. Reports management products: provide a snapshot of the status of certain aspects of the project. These are: Checkpoint report End project report End stage report Exception report Highlight report Issue report Lessons report Product status accountSummary PRINCE2 is PRojects IN Controlled Environments separates the management of project work from the specialist contributions, such as design or construction.  focuses on describing what needs to be done, rather than prescribing how everything is to be done focusing on describing what needs to be done, rather than prescribing how everything is done. Characteristics of project work that differentiates itself from business as usual (BAU) are Change, Temporary, Cross-functional, Unique and Uncertainty We wish to control Cost, Timescale, Scope, Quality, Benefits and Risk on a PRINCE2 project PRINCE2 assumes that there will be - a customer who will specify the desired result  a supplier who will provide the resources and skills to deliver that result PRINCE2 principles are :- Continued business justification Learn from experience Defined roles and responsibilities Manage by stages Manage by exception Focus on products Tailor to suit the project PRINCE2 Themes are :- Business Case Organization Quality Plans Risk Change Progress PRINCE2 processes are :- Starting Up a Project (SU) Directing A Project (DP) Initiating A Project (IP) Controlling A Stage (CS) Managing Product Delivery (MPD) Managing a Stage Boundary (SB) Closing A Project (CP) PRINCE2 Team roles are – Project Board (Executive, Senior User and Senior Supplier), Project Manager, Team Manager, Project Assurance, Change Authority and Project Support Throughout PRINCE2 project, documentation is maintained as management products - baselines, records and reports. 

Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2®

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Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2®

Apart from Project Management Professional (PMP)®PRINCE2® (PRojects IN Controlled Environments) is one of the most widely used methods for managing projects across the globe. It is a very methodical way of managing projects based on experience drawn from various projects and from the contributions of numerous people who worked using PRINCE2, such as project sponsors, project managers, project teams, academics, trainers and consultants. 

Its generic design can be applied to any project regardless of project scale, type, organization, geography or culture. 

  • It separates the project management work from specialist contributions, like design or construction 
  • Focus is on describing what needs to be done, instead of prescribing how project is to be done. 

PRINCE2®: 

  • is based more on governance for project management 
  • is tailored to meet the needs of the organization  
  • is implemented alongside industry-specific models e.g. ’engineering models’ or ‘development lifecycles’ 
  • helps participants focus on the viability of the project in relation to objectives mentioned in the business case 
  • makes sure that everybody involved is represented in planning and decision-making, appropriately 
  • inspires to learn lessons from experience in the projects and helps in continual improvement within the organizations.

PRINCE2 in Project Management 

Some characteristics of project work that differentiates itself from business as usual (BAU) are:- 

  • Change - Projects are a great catalyst for introducing change. 
  • Temporary - Projects have a definite start and a definite end.   
  • Cross-functional - people having different skills work together 
  • Unique - each project will be unique such as it involves a different customer, a different time. a different team, a different location 
  • Uncertainty  All projects carry a very high uncertainty – threats and opportunities. 

What are six project constraints that we wish to control throughout a project

  • ix project constraints that we wish to control throughout a projectCosts  spending depends on the budget given to the project manager 
  • Timescales - question the project manager is most frequently asked: What is your expected project completion date? 
  • Quality - products must be fit for the purpose for which they are produced. 
  • Scope  What is in-scope and out-of-scope of the project 
  • Benefits  What is the reason for doing this? A very crystal-clear understanding of the purpose of the project is required by the project manager 
  • Risk - All projects are risky but project manager must be aware of exactly how much risk we are  in a position to accept 

PRINCE2 assumes that there will be - 

  • a customer who will specify the requirement of a product  
  • a supplier who will provide all skilled resources to deliver that product 

PRINCE2 Structure

PRINCE2 Structure

The PRINCE2 Seven Principles are:- 

1. Continued business justification - A PRINCE2 project has continued business justification. 

All PRINCE2 projects require that: 

  • for starting the project, there has to be a justifiable reason 
  • this justification must be recorded and approved 
  • the justification must remain valid and is revalidated, throughout the project life-cycle to ensure that the project remains in line with the benefits which contribute to business objectives 
  • justification is documented either as a business case document or may use some business plans or any other similar document 

2. Learn from experience - lessons learned (seek), recorded and acted upon throughout the project. 

3. Defined roles and responsibilities - within an organization structure engages the business, user and supplier stakeholder interests 

4. Manage by stages - A PRINCE2 project is planned, monitored and controlled on a stage-by-stage basis. 

In PRINCE2, a project must have at least two management stages: 

  • an initiation stage 
  • at least one further management stage. 

5. Manage by exception - tolerances are defined for each project objective, to set limits for delegating authority. 

6. Focus on products  focus is more on the defining the products and delivery of products, including quality requirements.

7. Tailor to suit the environment - PRINCE2 can be tailored to suit the project size, complexity, team capability, environment, importance and risk. Project manager and project board will have to make choices including decisions on how PRINCE2 should be applied on the project.

PRINCE2 Seven Themes 

The PRINCE2 Seven Themes are - 

  • Business Case (Why?): project usually starts with an idea or a concept which is then considered to have potential value for the organization concerned. This theme addresses how the idea is developed into a viable investment proposition for the organization and how project management maintains the focus on the organization’s objectives throughout the project. 
  • Organization (Who?): organization which commissions the project needs to allocate the work to managers who will be responsible for it and steer it through to completion. Projects are cross-functional. This theme describes the roles and responsibilities the project management team is required to have, in order to manage the project efficiently and effectively. 
  • Quality (What?): all participants understand the quality attributes of the products to be delivered and then how the project management will ensure that these requirements are ultimately delivered. 
  • Plans (How? How much? When?):  
    • project plan for the project as a wholewill usually be a high-level plan, providing indicative timescales, milestones, cost and resource requirements based on estimates 
    • detailed stage plan for the current management stage, aligned with the overall project plan timescalesproduced before the start of that stage 
    • exception plans show actions performed to recover or come back on track from or avoid a forecast deviation from agreed tolerances, applies to project plan or stage plan 
    • a number of work packages are developed using detailed team plan

The PRINCE2 Seven Themes are

  • Risk (What if?): addresses how project management manages uncertainty. 
  • Change (What is the impact?): describes how project management assesses and responds to issues which have a potential impact on any of the baseline aspects of the project such as its plans and completed products. Issues may be instances of a product not meeting its specification or requests for change or unanticipated general problems. 
  • Progress (Where are we now? Where are we going? Should we carry on?): addresses the ongoing viability of the plans. This theme monitoractual performanceexplains the decision-making process for approving plans and the escalation process if events do not go according to plan. Ultimately, it determines how and whether the project should proceed.

PRINCE2 Seven Processes 

The PRINCE2 Seven Processes are:- 

Starting Up A Project (SU)  

Purpose

  • to ensure that the prerequisites for initiating a project are in place by answering the question: Do we have a viable and worthwhile project?  
  • base information needed to make rational decisions such as commissioning of the project is defined, key roles and responsibilities are identified and resources are allocated and a foundation for detailed planning is made available.

Objective: To ensure that: 

  • a business justification is documented in an outline business case, for initiating the project 
  • necessary authorities exist, for initiating the project 
  • project brief is available to define and confirm the scope of the project 
  • a feasible project approach is selected after evaluating different delivery approaches 
  • individuals are appointed who will undertake the project work  
  • the work required for project initiation is planned and documented in a stage plan

Directing A Project (DP)  

Purpose: To enable project board  

  • to be accountable for the project’s success by making key decisions and exercising overall control of the project and  
  • delegating day-to-day management of the project to the project manager

Objective

To ensure that 

  • some authority exists to initiate the projectto deliver the products and close the project 
  • management direction and control are provided to all concerned throughout the project’s life 
  • project remains viable at every stage 
  • corporate, programme management or the customer has a transparent interface to the project 
  • post-project benefits realization plans are reviewed and managed

Initiating A Project (IP)  

Purpose

  • to establish a sturdy foundation for the project 
  • to understand the work that needs to be done to deliver the project’s products before committing to a large spend 

Objective: to ensure that there is a common understanding of - 

  • what are the reasons for doing the project, what benefits are expected and what are the associated risks 
  • what is the scope of the work and what are the products to be delivered 
  • how the products will be delivered, when should they be delivered and what would be the cost involved at that point of time 
  • What the project decision-making team is comprised of  
  • how the required level of quality is be achieved 
  • how baselines can be established and controlled 
  • how risks, issues and changes can be identified, assessed and controlled 
  • how progress of the project can be monitored and controlled 
  • who requires which information, in what format and at what point of time

Controlling Stage (CS)  

Controlling Stage (CS)  

Purpose: To assign and monitor work, deal with issues, report progress to the project board and take corrective actions to ensure that the management stage remains within tolerance 

Objective: to ensure that: 

  • proper attention is focused on delivery of the management stage’s products by monitoring to avoid uncontrolled change and loss of focus 
  • risks and issues are tracked to keep them under control 
  • business case is reviewed at appropriate times 
  • agreed products for the management stage are delivered to stated quality standards, within cost, effort and time agreed 
  • project management team is focused on delivering within the tolerance level set

Managing Product Delivery (MPD)  

Purpose: is to control the link between the project manager and the team manager(s). Both agree on requirements for acceptance, execution and delivery. 

Objective: to ensure that: 

  • product related work allocated to the team is authorized and agreed upon first 
  • team managers, team members and suppliers are clear about what needs to be produced and what is the expected effort, cost or timescales 
  • planned products are delivered to expectations and within tolerances 
  • accurate information on progress of product development should be provided to the project manager at an agreed frequency to ensure that expectations are managed 

Managing a Stage Boundary (SB) 

Purpose: to enable the project manager to provide the project board with sufficient information to be able to: 

  • review the current management stage if it has completed successfully 
  • approve the next stage plan 
  • review the updated project plan 
  • confirm continued business justification and acceptability of the risks 

Hence, this process should either be executed at the end of or close to the end of each management stage.

Objective: is to: 

  • give an assurance to the project board that all products produced in the stage plan for the current management stage are developed by the team and approved 
  • prepare the next management stage plan 
  • review the PID documents and if necessary, update the business case, project plan, project approaches, project management team structure and role descriptions 
  • provide all the accurate information required by the project board to assess the continuing viability of the project 
  • record any information gathered or lessons learned that can help later management stages of the current project and/or other/future projects 
  • request authorization to start the next management stage from the project board 

For exceptions, the objectives are to: 

  • review the PID documents and if necessary, update the customer’s quality expectations, project approaches and controls and role descriptions 
  • provide all the accurate information required by the project board to assess the continuing viability of the project 
  • prepare an exception plan as directed by the project board 
  • without fail and further delay project manager must seek approval to replace the project plan or stage plan for the current management stage with the exception plan 

Managing a stage boundary is not performed towards the end of the final management stage, except an exception plan may be created on need basis.

Closing A Project (CP) 

Purpose

  • provide a normal termination point at which acceptance of the project’s product is confirmed and accepted by the user group 
  • recognize that objectives set out in the original PID documents have been achieved (or approved changes to the objectives have been achieved), or that the project has nothing more to contribute

Objective

  • verify that the final product has been accepted by the user  
  • make sure that the operations are able to support the products when the project is disbanded 
  • review the performance of the project against its baselines 
  • assess any benefits that have been realized during the project cycle and update the benefits management approach to include any post-project benefit reviews 
  • ensure that provision has been made to address all open issues and risks, with follow-on action recommendations

Team roles in PRINCE2 

Project Board 

Members: Executive, Senior Users and Senior Suppliers 

Responsibilities

  • Accountable for the success or failure of the project 
  • Provides unified direction to the project 
  • Delegates effectively 
  • Facilitates integration 
  • Authorizes the funds 
  • Effective decision-making 
  • Supports the project manager 
  • Ensures effective communication

Executive 

  • Appointed by Corporate,  Programme management or Customer 
  • Ultimately responsible for the project 
  • Key decision maker, buck stops at him 
  • Ensures project is focused throughout its life on achieving its objectives 
  • Ensures project delivers value for money 
  • Ensures project is aligned to corporate strategy. 

Responsibilities

  • Design and appoint project management team 
  • Oversee development of the Project Brief 
  • Oversee development of detailed Business Case 
  • Secure funding for the project 
  • Hold Senior Supplier accountable for the quality and integrity of the product 
  • Hold Senior User accountable for realizing the benefits 
  • Monitor and control the progress at strategic level 
  • Chair Project Board reviews 

Project Manager 

  • Given authority to run the project on a day to day basis  
  • Ensures that the project produces the required products 
  • Responsible for producing the result capable of achieving the benefits as stated in the business case 

Responsibilities  

  • Produce key project documents 
  • Prepare key project reports 
  • Maintain key project records 
  • Liaise with corporate, programme management or customer 
  • Liaise with external suppliers 
  • Lead and motivate the project management team 
  • Manage information flows between various levels of the project 
  • Manage production of the required products 
  • Establish and manage the project procedures 
  • Authorize Work Packages 
  • Advise the Project Board of any deviations from the plan

Senior User 

  • Specifies the needs of those who will use the project’s products. 
  • Represents the interests of : 
    • Those who will use the project’s products. 
    • Those for whom the products will achieve an objective 
    • Those who will use the products to deliver benefits

Responsibilities

  • Provide the customer’s quality expectations 
  • Ensure project products deliver the desired outcomes 
  • Ensure that expected benefits are realized 
  • Resolve user requirements and priority conflicts 
  • Ensure availability of user resources 
  • Make decisions on escalated issues 
  • Undertake Project Assurance from user perspective

Senior Supplier 

  • Represents interest of those producing the project products 
  • Accountable for quality of products delivered by the supplier 
  • Responsible for technical integrity of the project

Responsibilities

  • Assess the viability of the project 
  • Ensure that proposals are realistic 
  • Advise on the selection of product methods 
  • Ensure that supplier resources are made available 
  • Make decisions on escalated issues 
  • Resolve supplier requirements and priority conflicts 
  • Ensure adherence to quality procedures 
  • Undertake Project Assurance from supplier perspective.

Project Assurance 

  • Covers the primary stakeholder interests 
  • Has to be independent of the Project Manager 
  • Has sufficient credibility 
  • May be from corporate, programme management or customer organization.

Responsibilities

  • Liaison between business, user and supplier is maintained 
  • Risks are controlled 
  • Right people are involved in writing product descriptions 
  • Right people are planned and involved in quality inspections 
  • Staff are properly trained in quality methods 
  • Quality methods are adhered to 
  • An acceptable solution is being developed 
  • Applicable standards are being used 

Change Authority 

  • Authority for approving responses to requests for change or off-specifications 
  • Adequately represents the business, user and supplier interests 
  • Has sufficiently credibility 
  • Change Authority could be assigned to:  
    • Corporate or Programme management 
    • Project Board 
    • A nominated person / body 
    • Project Manager. 

Responsibilities

  • Review and approve or reject all requests for change and off-specifications within the delegated limits of authority and change budget set by the Project Board. 
  • Refer to the Project Board if any delegated limits of authority or allocated change budget are forecast to be exceeded. 

Project Support 

  • Is mainly concerned with providing administrative services or advice and guidance on the use of project management tools. 
  • Is the responsibility of the Project Manager. 
  • May be delegated to other roles or a separate role. 
  • Project Support and Project Assurance roles must be kept separate. 

Responsibilities

  • Set up and maintain project files 
  • Establish document control procedure 
  • Collect data – actuals and forecasts 
  • Update plans and maintain them 
  • Administer quality review progress 
  • Administer project board meetings 
  • Assist with compilation of reports 
  • Contribute expertise in tools and techniques 
  • Maintain key records 
  • Administer the configuration management procedure.

Team Manager 

  • Reports to and takes direction from the Project Manager 
  • Responsible to ensure production of products allocated by the Project Manager 
  • Reasons for allocating a separate Team Manager : 
    • Size of the project 
    • Specialist skills or knowledge needed 
    • Geographical location, or 
    • Preferences of the Project Board. 

Responsibilities

  • Prepare the Team Plan 
  • Produce Checkpoint Reports 
  • Plan, monitor and manage the team’s work 
  • Ensure progress of team’s work and use of team resources 
  • Identify any issues and risks associated with a Work Package 
  • Advise Project Manager of any deviations 
  • Hand over completed and approved products 
  • Liaise with Project Assurance and Project Support roles 
  • Plan and manage quality activities relating to team’s work. 

Types of PRINCE2 documentation 

Throughout PRINCE2 project, documentation is maintained as management products.  

There are three types of management product: baselines, records and reports. 

Baseline management products: are those that define aspects of the project and, when approved, are subject to change control. These are: 

  • Benefits management approach 
  • Business case 
  • Change control approach 
  • Communication management approach 
  • Plan (covers project plans, stage plans, exception plans and, optionally, team plans) 
  • Product description 
  • Project brief 
  • Project initiation documentation (PID) 
  • Project product description 
  • Quality management approach 
  • Risk management approach 
  • Work package 

Records management products: are dynamic and they maintain information regarding project progress. These are: 

  • Configuration item record 
  • Daily log 
  • Issue register 
  • Lessons log 
  • Quality register 
  • Risk register. 

Reports management products: provida snapshot of the status of certain aspects of the project. These are: 

  • Checkpoint report 
  • End project report 
  • End stage report 
  • Exception report 
  • Highlight report 
  • Issue report 
  • Lessons report 
  • Product status account

Summary 

PRINCE2 is PRojects IN Controlled Environments 

  • separates the management of project work from the specialist contributions, such as design or construction.  
  • focuses on describing what needs to be done, rather than prescribing how everything is to be done focusing on describing what needs to be done, rather than prescribing how everything is done. 

Characteristics of project work that differentiates itself from business as usual (BAU) are Change, Temporary, Cross-functional, Unique and Uncertainty 

We wish to control Cost, Timescale, Scope, Quality, Benefits and Risk on a PRINCE2 project 

PRINCE2 assumes that there will be - 

  • a customer who will specify the desired result  
  • a supplier who will provide the resources and skills to deliver that result 

PRINCE2 principles are :- 

  • Continued business justification 
  • Learn from experience 
  • Defined roles and responsibilities 
  • Manage by stages 
  • Manage by exception 
  • Focus on products 
  • Tailor to suit the project 

PRINCE2 Themes are :- 

  • Business Case 
  • Organization 
  • Quality 
  • Plans 
  • Risk 
  • Change 
  • Progress 

PRINCE2 processes are :- 

  • Starting Up a Project (SU) 
  • Directing A Project (DP) 
  • Initiating A Project (IP) 
  • Controlling A Stage (CS) 
  • Managing Product Delivery (MPD) 
  • Managing a Stage Boundary (SB) 
  • Closing A Project (CP) 

PRINCE2 Team roles are – Project Board (Executive, Senior User and Senior Supplier), Project Manager, Team Manager, Project Assurance, Change Authority and Project Support 

Throughout PRINCE2 project, documentation is maintained as management products - baselines, records and reports. 

KnowledgeHut

KnowledgeHut

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KnowledgeHut is an outcome-focused global ed-tech company. We help organizations and professionals unlock excellence through skills development. We offer training solutions under the people and process, data science, full-stack development, cybersecurity, future technologies and digital transformation verticals.
Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com

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This is done to ensure that the work is being performed as per the required quality standards.Task 4: Follow the change management plan to implement the approved changes and corrective actions so that the project requirements can be met.Task 5: Follow the risk management plan to implement the approved actions so that the impact of risks can be minimized while at the same time, the advantage of opportunities on the project can be attained. ‘Task 6: Follow the communication plan and manage the flow of information so that the stakeholders are kept engaged and informed.Task 7: Follow the stakeholder management plan to maintain the stakeholder relationship so that continued support can be received and expectations can be managed.Knowledge and SkillsContinuous improvement processesElements of a statement of workProject budgeting tools and techniquesVendor management techniquesContract management techniquesInterdependencies among project elementsQuality standard toolsDomain IV, Monitoring and Controlling - 25%Task 1: Use appropriate tools and techniques to measure the project performance so that any variance and corrective actions can be identified and quantified.Task 2: Follow the change in the management plan and manage changes to the project so that the project goal remains aligned with the business needs.Task 3: Use appropriate tools and techniques to meet project requirements and business needs in order to verify that the project deliverables conform to the quality standards which has been established in the quality management plan.Task 4: Monitor and assess the risk to determine if exposure has changed and evaluated the effectiveness of response strategies so that the impact of risks and opportunities on the project can be managed.Task 5: Review and update the issue log as well as determine corrective measures by using appropriate tools and techniques so that the impact on the project can be minimized.Task 6: Use lessons learned management techniques to capture, analyze, and manage the lessons learned so that continuous improvement can be attained.Task 7: According to the procurement plan, monitor the procurement activities so that the compliance with project activities can be verified.Knowledge and SkillsPerformance measurement and tracking techniquesProject control limitsProject monitoring tools and techniquesQuality measurement toolsRisk response techniquesProcess analysis techniquesProject finance principlesProject quality best practices and standardsRisk identification and analysis techniquesQuality validation and verification techniquesDomain V, Closing - 7%Task I: Collect the final acceptance of the project deliverables from the relevant stakeholders as confirmation that the project scope and deliverables were achieved.Task II: According to the project plan, transfer the ownership of deliverables to the assigned stakeholders so that the project closure can be facilitated.Task III: Obtain financial, legal and administrative closure via the accepted practices and policies so that a formal closure of the project can be attained and a transfer of liability can be ensured.Task IV: According to the communications management plan, prepare and share the final project report so that the project performance can be documented and conveyed as well as project evaluation can be assisted.Task V: Collect and combine the lessons that were learned throughout the project and conduct a project review so that the organization’s knowledge base can be updated.Task VI: Archive the materials and project documents by making use of the generally accepted practices so that statutory requirements can be complied with and for potential use in future projects and audits.Task VII: Use appropriate tools and techniques to get feedback from relevant stakeholders so that their satisfaction can be evaluated.Knowledge and SkillsArchiving practices and statutesContract closure requirementsFeedback techniquesProject review techniquesActive listeningBenefits realizationBusiness acumenCoaching, mentoring, training, and motivational techniquesConfiguration managementCustomer satisfaction metricsDecision makingDiversity and cultural sensitivityExpert judgment techniqueGenerational sensitivity and diversityInterpersonal skillsLeadership tools, techniques, and skillsMeeting management techniquesOrganizational and operational awarenessPresentation tools and techniquesProblem-solving tools and techniquesQuality assurance and control techniquesRisk assessment techniquesStakeholder management techniquesVirtual/remote team managementCompliance (statute/organization)Close-out proceduresPerformance measurement techniquesTransition planning techniqueApplicable laws and regulationsBrainstorming techniquesChange management techniquesCommunication channels, tools, techniques, and methodsConflict resolutionData gathering techniquesDelegation techniquesEmotional intelligenceFacilitationInformation management tools, techniques, and methodsKnowledge managementLessons learned management techniquesNegotiating and influencing techniques and skillsPeer-review processesPrioritization/time managementProject finance principlesRelationship managementSituational awarenessTeam-building techniquesTips for passing and preparing for PMP® ExamPMP® exam requires a lot of dedication and efforts in order to clear it at one go. The following tips will surely help you to prepare and pass your PMP® exam:Memorise all formulas to easily answer the math questions.Spend around 4 hours to practice full sample exams at one sitting.On the day of your exam, use your time effectively to answer 200 questions within 4 hours. You will have 1 minute to answer each question.Answer all questions, do not leave any question blank.Use the process of elimination for obviously incorrect answer options to maximise probability in case you are not sure about the correct answer.Avoid spending too much time on any single question. If you are spending more than 2 minutes on a single question then you can make your best guess for the answer and mark it for review at the end of the exam.Try to reserve the last 10 minutes to review the marked questions.Read all the answer options before selecting an answer.Keep in mind that some questions may provide hints to other questions in the exam.Wear comfortable cloth and footwear on the day of your exam.To wrap it up!The PMP® certification acts as a validation of a professional’s experience in project management and is a challenging process as well. Start preparing well for the five domains (Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing) in advance so that you can ace the examination and get nearer to achieving your dream career. All the best!
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The PMP® Exam Blueprint For 2019

Preparing for your PMP® exam might seem like a st... Read More

A Comprehensive Guide to PMP® Exam Preparation

Are you still trying to figure out a way to start preparing for your PMP® Exam? Fret not! This blog will guide you with some best practices that you should adopt while preparing for your PMP® exam. This will surely help you to successfully clear your PMP® certification exam.Every PMP certification aspirant differs from one another in terms of experience and expertise. Similarly, every person has got a unique learning habit. Therefore, you should get your own study plan which is based on your personal learning likes and needs. But this doesn’t mean that you should get worried about developing the study plan as you can find a plethora of resources to cater the needs of exam candidates, both online and offline which allows you to come up with a plan which fits your specific needs, style of learning, and individual circumstances.6 best practices for your PMP® Exam preparationUsually, most of the successful PMP® candidates spend long hours preparing for their PMP® certification exam. So, you should make sure that you have plenty of time to prepare for your PMP® exam. You can adopt the following best practices to prepare for your PMP® certification exam:1.Review the PMP® Examination Content OutlinePMP® Examination content outline is an important document which will help you to do well with your PMP® exam. You should go through this document which is published by PMI® to find the following information:Break up of questions as per the Process areasList of skills, tasks, and knowledge which are required as per PMI’s Role Delineation study.Going through this credible document will give you a high-level idea of what all get covered in the PMP® exam. You should go through this once you feel that you have attained a reasonable command on the content covered by PMBOK® Guide or any other study guide which you are referring in order to ensure that you avoid any unwanted surprises while appearing for your PMP® certification exam.2.Take up a formal study course offered by any accredited Registered Education Provider (R.E.P)Project Management Institute (PMI) has approved a few organisations to offer project management training in order to establish a global network of quality education providers to help all the Project Management Professional (PMP®) credential aspirants and credential holders.Enrolling yourself in a PMP® training course is one of the best ways to prepare for your certification exam. The reasons are as follows:These courses provide tailor-made PMP study materials and best practices for the PMP exam.They give you a quick start in getting a grasp of various project management concepts, formulae, terminology, and other key inputs which help you to prepare for your PMP exam.You can also get the 35 contact hours certificate by taking up these training courses which is necessary for you to be eligible for the PMP® exam.3.Come up with a study planYou should start treating your PMP® certification as a project and prepare a plan which covers all the activities that would help you to get PMP® certified. But the core element in this plan is to have a well-defined study plan. You should break your study sessions into smaller chunks and prepare a study plan which includes timelines to read PMBOK®, practice mock tests, study various materials etc.4.Review the latest edition of PMBOK® Guide and self-study books published by other reputable training organisationsNo matter whatever reference material you want to study in order to prepare for your PMP® certification exam, the PMPBOK® Guide is the recommended study material for all the PMP® aspirants. The page number 61 of the guide contains a table that shows the relation between 13 Knowledge Areas and 5 Process Groups with 47 processes. It further explains how these are applicable to project management.As a candidate, you should be thorough with this table and draw this table on a piece of paper in 5 minutes while appearing for your exam. The same can be used as a reference in answering the 200 exam questions. Other than the PMBOK® Guide, you can also review other study guides published by R.E.P.s and other reputable training organisations.5.Get ready for your exam by practicing Mock TestsDo you want to check the status of your PMP® certification exam preparation? You can do that by taking PMP mock tests. These can help you to map the gaps in your project management knowledge. You can take a test and review the results to find the areas that you need to work on.Focusing on answering the questions by sitting at a place for four hours is not a piece of cake. Taking full-length mock tests helps you to prepare for such a physically daunting and mentally straining process. However, it is a very important drill for your PMP® certification exam. So, it’s better to take up these mock tests and prepare well for your big day.6.Study groupStudying in a group can prove to be quite helpful while you are preparing for your PMP® certification exam. Catch up with the like-minded PMP® aspirants to know about new tactics and get benefited in other ways by being a part of the study group. Few of the benefits are as follows:Studying in a group is the best escape from the monotony of studying alone.You can surely overcome the areas which you are struggling with.Helping others will also boost your confidence.Sharing project management experiences with others help you to crack the scenario based questions which is the trickiest part of the PMP® certification exam.It further helps you to stay on course and helps you to motivate each other in the group.The biggest advantage of studying in a group is that it forces you to study on a regular basis and makes the preparation activity a part of your routine.Tips and tricks to prepare for your PMP® examYou need to study numerous materials in order to crack your PMP® certification exam. But do you have access to the right books and materials? Every person has his or her own way of learning. The following ways will surely help you to become efficient in your study and get equipped with all the knowledge that you need to crack your PMP® exam:If you have access to the workshops conducted by PMI then that would be a big benefit for you. This will also help you to receive the bundle of 35 credit hours which are necessary to qualify for your PMP® application procedure. Attending a PMP® boot camp gives you access to numerous benefits. Few of them are:1.Review everything which you need to cover on the examEverybody is oblivious about what he or she is going to encounter during the PMP® certification exam. Whatever you will find in the exam is sure to be geared from the PMBOK®. This means you should be thorough with the PMBOK® guidelines to get PMP® certified at one go. But the PMBOK® consists of only 75% of what you will see in the exam. What about the rest? You need to seek for a PMP instructor’s guidance in order to fill the gap in learning to qualify your PMP® certification exam.2.Review how to study for the examAs discussed, the PMBOK® guide is a great resource for your PMP® certification exam. At times, even if the questions are lengthy with a situational circumstance, you need to bring it down to a rule that needs to be comprehended. Further, there are certain focus areas on which you need to invest more of your study time than others. It is always better to seek guidance from a professional rather than guessing what you should study.3.Informal questionsIf you lack the idea of how to implement cost, schedule, or risk structure, then it’s a great opportunity for you to understand it. You should learn to shed light on practical application using fundamental examples.You should change your study methods to prepare well for a continuously evolving exam process like the Project Management Professional (PMP)® exam. These days, this exam is based on PMBOK® Guide 6th edition and is a lot harder than it was in the past. The 4 partially correct choices which are provided for all the questions make it even confusing and raise the level of complication for the candidate.The following tricks are surely going to help you in shaping up your exam:Get aligned with the exam dynamics by spending 30 minutes every day on a free exam simulator.Follow the rule of 85%. Keep practicing mock exams until you score at least 85% in all the model exams. This indicates that you are ready to face the PMP® certification exam.Another important trick is to understand the ‘ITTO TRICK Sheet of 49 processes’ which you can find in the PMBOK® guide. This will really prove helpful to you in mapping all the processes inputs, outputs, tools, and techniques.In order to rightly utilize the 12 minutes after the exam, you need to read and memorize the Formula Trick Sheet. You need to print and paste the same on your desk in order to practice it every day because writing this after 4 hours exam will surely help you to track the questions and save significant time.You need to read and memorize the PMPBOK® 6th Edition 49 Process Chart. Print and paste the same on your desk and practice it every day until you can draw the chart within 8 minutes.To wrap it upWhen you begin with your preparation for PMP® certification, you should remember that attaining the PMP® certification shows your commitment to the profession of project management and demonstrates your credibility to earn more as well as raising the value of your resume above the non-certified professionals. Keeping these points in mind will surely help you to avoid getting discouraged during your certification process.You can also learn more about PMP® certification hereThis blog throws light on a few best practices along with some tips and tricks to smoothly proceed with your PMP® journey. It is important for you to set a standard time for your studies other than having a thorough understanding of the PMBOK® guide. So, start clearing your calendar to fit in your daily study time as PMP® needs a lot of thorough studies and is not an easy path to success.
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A Comprehensive Guide to PMP® Exam Preparation

Are you still trying to figure out a way to start ... Read More