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How to Learn React in 2021

One of the biggest challenges that all front-end developers face is building responsive and complex UI, while retaining high load time and enhancing performances. The User Interface is what grabs the attention of the users and increases the popularity of your website. A website that is slow and takes a lot of time to get loaded will be abandoned more often than not. In this respect React is a bestselling tool for developers, as it ensures better user experience and optimizes app performances.  Though it sounds very cool, learning a new technology can be a daunting prospect. A planned approach can be extremely helpful while learning new skills. Before we start, let us look at what we will learn in this blog! Introduction to React React VS Other frameworks React prerequisites Approach to mastering a skill Online learning process Roadmaps to learn React Fundamentals Why should I learn React? Challenges while learning ConclusionIntroduction to React: React is a powerful JavaScript Library, created by Facebook. It is open source and a component-based UI library tool. All the elements which we see in a website built on React are composed of several sub-components e.g., the buttons, side menus, navigation bar, headers, footers, paragraphs etc. To know about more about the components and other features you should check out this official documentation at.React VS other Frameworks/Libraries The frameworks for Web development are: Angular Angular is an application design framework (not a JS Library) which is based on TypeScript and is open source. It is maintained and managed by the Angular Team at Google and can be used to create efficient Single Page Applications (SPAs) for enterprises. Pros: Easily create Single Page Applications Prototyping, Development, and testing becomes faster It supports 2-way data binding DOM Manipulation is easy and hence server-side load is minimized Responsive web designing Latest Angular versions support TypeScript which makes it easier to learn Good community support Cons: Challenging to understand MVC for beginners Some features are difficult to understand e.g., dependency injection, services etc. Poor response during Search Engine Optimization Official Documentation Link. Vuejs It is a JavaScript-based UI framework. It is used for building user interfaces and creating Single Page Applications with the help of some libraries. Pros: Remarkably simple to use It has good documentation It supports virtual DOM Manipulation and 2-way Data binding Unit testing can be efficiently done Good community support Cons: It is not suitable for large-scale projects Limited resources Not immensely popular among developers Official Documentation Link.There are several other JS libraries and frameworks in the market. Click the links below to know more about these libraries or frameworks. jQuery Official Documentation Link. Emberjs Official Documentation Link.Backbonejs Official Documentation Link.Semantic-UI Official Documentation Link.Foundation Official Documentation Link.Svelte Official Documentation Link.Here’s what makes React more powerful than others: It is based on Components, and the same components can be reused We can break the whole UI into smallest components It is simple to use One-way data binding It uses virtual DOM, that means there is lesser load in the server-side rendering High performance Good documentation Downsides of React JSX is very confusing in the beginning Version conflicts and new documentation Subsequent latest updates and versions have caused chaos and confusion Here is a quick analysis of how the popularity of React has increased in recent years: Image SourceReact Prerequisites: Before diving into the learning path, you should have the following prerequisites Familiarity with any programming language Basic string, array manipulation operations OOPs concepts Basics of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript Deep interest to learn new skills Approach to master a skill:  These are the things you must consider while mastering a skill: Know your abilities, self-evaluate Track your learning process Create timelines Revise and focus on weak areas Take help from experts Practically apply whatever you have learnt so far Learn, do not cram Practice, practice and again, practice! Create projects Share your learning outcomes on LinkedIn, push your codes on GitHub repositories Compete online Online learning process: Learning new skills online saves a lot of time. We can learn at our own convenience and manage our schedules comfortably. While learning online: Choose a course based on values and outcomes It should include projects and technical support while learning A course that offers a mini-certification or a minor degree is more valuable Create a dedicated time-duration for your online classes Stick with the time and practice daily Focus on the main concepts and clear your doubts at the same time Maintain notes and revise them Ask good questions and get your doubts cleared. Here are a few courses you might wish to explore: Free:CodecademyEggheadEggheadScrimbaui.Dev Paid:EggheadFrontendmastersReacttrainingNewlineReact for beginnersYou can find other useful resources here.Roadmaps to learn React 1. Learn the basics of HTML: HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language, and is a standard markup language to create web pages. We use different tags to structure the parts of a web page. Different HTML elements tell the browser how the content should be displayed on the browser. You must be aware of the following things: Basics of all tags, new features, and support in HTML5 How to link external CSS file Various attributes Embedding Audio, Images and Videos (Media) CSS: CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. It is used to format the web pages and primarily focuses on the look and feel of the web pages. We can control the styles of the HTML elements with CSS. We can also change the position, layout, arrangements of the HTML elements using CSS. We can add CSS to a HTML document in three ways – Inline, Internal and External.  Be sure to check-out the following points:  How to link external CSS files Attribute selectors Box-model JavaScript: It adds interactivity and dynamics in the HTML document. It is a client-side scripting language. To take inputs from users, validate them, display alerts etc., we use JavaScript.  Following are the important points to consider: Functions Strings Array manipulation Loops Printing alerts Logging on consoles2. Tools and Software GitHub: It is a hosting service which allows users to store and manage their source codes. It provides a helpful graphical UI (User Interface) to manage your projects. We can also access this using the command line. Once you start the actual coding and working on projects, you must use GitHub to manage your source codes. It also provides team collaboration. Focus on the following important points and learn: How to create a repository Pushing your code on GitHub Creating branches Git commands Team collaboration Version control Code Editors VS Code: It is a powerful source code editor used by most of the developers. It provides additional extensions and development tools which prove to be extremely helpful while writing the code.  3. Package Managers Npm or Yarn These are tools used to manage the packages and libraries. You can choose the package manager of your choice. Learn command line commands to create a project,  to install, remove - new modules, packages to update the versions 4. Advanced Concepts in Development ES6: It stands for ECMAScript 6, with ES6 being the 6th version of ECMAScript. ECMAScript was introduced to standardize JavaScript and was published in 2015. Due to new releases, there are some functionality changes in the previous concepts of React. State managements: It is a special technique which React uses to manipulate, update the values and data associated with the components. Passing values among components: Usually we pass the data from parent to child using props. There are alternative ways to pass the data using Redux and Context API. These are some advanced concepts which are particularly important. Component State/Context API Redux  Async and Await API Requests Promises Observable Helpers Data persistence 5. Better Styling using third party packages and plugins Learn how to add Bootstrap in your applications make your webpage responsive as per the various screen sizes apply Material Designs in your components, set default colors for your projects - Color palettes: primary, secondary, tertiary colors 6. Working with API Fetching data from APIs Get and Post requests Handling promises and observables 7. Routing and Navigation Loading other components in the same page Navigation among various components and views 8. Testing Testing is an important part in a Software Development Life Cycle. Testing ensures the quality of the development work. We use the following resources to test the React components. Jest: Jest is a JavaScript test runner that lets you access the DOM through jsdom.  React Testing Library: it is a lightweight solution to test the React components.  Find the official documentation here. Fundamentals Styling standards Create reusable and standard components and apply proper styling in components. Coding Standards Write reusable and quality code – writing a superior quality code enhances the performance of the whole application. Apply proper naming conventions while writing the code. Why should I learn React? Good community support Distinguished career ahead Regular updates and new versions Immense popularity Good income High demands in market Choice of new developers According to average salary of the React developer is: Challenges while learning As is the case when you are learning something new, you may find some challenges or difficulty in the learning process. You can take help from several communities, e.g., stackoverflow, quora etc. to clear your doubts. Focus on learning the following topics: Hooks and Redux Promises Data binding Functional and class-based components Lifecycle of components ConclusionTechnologies are changing at warp speed, and new innovations in the existing structures and workflow are implemented on a regular basis. To adapt to these changes, it's important to keep your skills and competencies updated as well. As some concepts and their implementations may be older,  always follow the official documentation, upskill yourself and stay relevant in the workforce!   

How to Learn React in 2021

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How to Learn React in 2021

One of the biggest challenges that all front-end developers face is building responsive and complex UI, while retaining high load time and enhancing performancesThe User Interface is what grabs the attention of the users and increases the popularity of your websiteA website that is slow and takes a lot of time to get loaded will be abandoned more often than notIn this respect React is a bestselling tool for developers, as it ensures better user experience and optimizes app performances.  

Though it sounds very cool, learning a new technology can be a daunting prospectA planned approach can be extremely helpful while learning new skills. 

Before we start, let us look at what we will learn in this blog! 

  1. Introduction to React 
  2. React VS Other frameworks 
  3. React prerequisites 
  4. Approach to mastering a skill 
  5. Online learning process 
  6. Roadmaps to learn React 
  7. Fundamentals 
  8. Why should I learn React? 
  9. Challenges while learning 
  10. Conclusion

Introduction to React: 

React is a powerful JavaScript Library, created by Facebook. It is open source and component-based UI library tool. 

How to Learn React in 2020

All the elements which we see in a website built on React are composed of several sub-components e.g., the buttons, side menus, navigation bar, headers, footers, paragraphs etc. 

To know about more about the components and other features you should check out this official documentation at.

React VS other Frameworks/Libraries 

The frameworks for Web development are: 

  • Angular 

Angular is an application design framework (not a JS Library) which is based on TypeScript and is open sourceIt is maintained and managed by the Angular Team at Google and can be used to create efficient Single Page Applications (SPAs) for enterprises. 

AngularPros: 

  1. Easily create Single Page Applications 
  2. Prototyping, Development, and testing becomes faster 
  3. It supports 2-way data binding 
  4. DOM Manipulation is easy and hence server-side load is minimized 
  5. Responsive web designing 
  6. Latest Angular versions support TypeScript which makes it easier to learn 
  7. Good community support 

Cons: 

  1. Challenging to understand MVC for beginners 
  2. Some features are difficult to understand e.g., dependency injection, services etc. 
  3. Poor response during Search Engine Optimization 

Official Documentation Link. 

  • Vuejs 

It is JavaScript-based UI framework. It is used for building user interfaces and creating Single Page Applications with the help of some libraries. 

VuejsPros: 

  1. Remarkably simple to use 
  2. It has good documentation 
  3. It supports virtual DOM Manipulation and 2-way Data binding 
  4. Unit testing can be efficiently done 
  5. Good community support 

Cons: 

  1. It is not suitable for large-scale projects 
  2. Limited resources 
  3. Not immensely popular among developers 

Official Documentation Link.

There are several other JS libraries and frameworks in the marketClick the links below to know more about these libraries or frameworks. 

How to Learn React in 2020

  • jQuery 

Official Documentation Link. 

  • Emberjs 

Official Documentation Link.

  • Backbonejs 

Official Documentation Link.

  • Semantic-UI 

Official Documentation Link.

  • Foundation 

Official Documentation Link.

  • Svelte 

Official Documentation Link.

Here’s what makes React more powerful than others: 

  1. It is based on Componentsand the same components can be reused 
  2. We can break the whole UI into smallest components 
  3. It is simple to use 
  4. One-way data binding 
  5. It uses virtual DOM, that means there is lesser load in the server-side rendering 
  6. High performance 
  7. Good documentation 

Downsides of React 

  1. JSX is very confusing in the beginning 
  2. Version conflicts and new documentation 
  3. Subsequent latest updates and versions have caused chaos and confusion 

Here is a quick analysis of how the popularity of React has increased in recent years: 

How to Learn React in 2020Image Source

React Prerequisites: 

Before diving into the learning path, you should have the following prerequisites 

  1. Familiarity with any programming language 
  2. Basic string, array manipulation operations 
  3. OOPs concepts 
  4. Basics of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript 
  5. Deep interest to learn new skills 

Approach to master a skill: 

 These are the things you must consider while mastering a skill: 

  1. Know your abilities, self-evaluate 
  2. Track your learning process 
  3. Create timelines 
  4. Revise and focus on weak areas 
  5. Take help from experts 
  6. Practically apply whatever you have learnt so far 
  7. Learn, do not cram 
  8. Practice, practice and again, practice! 
  9. Create projects 
  10. Share your learning outcomes on LinkedIn, push your codes on GitHub repositories 
  11. Compete online 

Online learning process: 

Learning new skills online saves lot of time. We can learn at our own convenience and manage our schedules comfortablyWhile learning online: 

  1. Choose a course based on values and outcomes 
  2. It should include projects and technical support while learning 
  3. A course that offers mini-certification or a minor degree is more valuable 
  4. Create a dedicated time-duration for your online classes 
  5. Stick with the time and practice daily 
  6. Focus on the main concepts and clear your doubts at the same time 
  7. Maintain notes and revise them 
  8. Ask good questions and get your doubts cleared. 

Here are a few courses you might wish to explore: 

Free:

  1. Codecademy
  2. Egghead
  3. Egghead
  4. Scrimba
  5. ui.Dev 

Paid:

  1. Egghead
  2. Frontendmasters
  3. Reacttraining
  4. Newline
  5. React for beginners

You can find other useful resources here.

Roadmaps to learn React 

1. Learn the basics of 

How to Learn React in 2020

  • HTMLHTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language, and is a standard markup language to create web pages. We use different tags to structure the parts of a web page. Different HTML elements tell the browser how the content should be displayed on the browser. 

You must be aware of the following things: 

  1. Basics of all tags, new features, and support in HTML5 
  2. How to link external CSS file 
  3. Various attributes 
  4. Embedding Audio, Images and Videos (Media) 
  • CSS: CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. It is used to format the web pages and primarily focuses on the look and feel of the web pages. We can control the styles of the HTML elements with CSS. We can also change the position, layout, arrangements of the HTML elements using CSS. 

We can add CSS to a HTML document in three ways – Inline, Internal and External.  

Be sure to check-out the following points:  

  1. How to link external CSS files 
  2. Attribute selectors 
  3. Box-model 
  • JavaScript: It adds interactivity and dynamics in the HTML document. It is client-side scripting language. To take inputs from users, validate them, display alerts etc., we use JavaScript.  

Following are the important points to consider: 

  1. Functions 
  2. Strings 
  3. Array manipulation 
  4. Loops 
  5. Printing alerts 
  6. Logging on consoles

2. Tools and Software 

  • GitHub: It is hosting service which allows users to store and manage their source codes. It provides a helpful graphical UI (User Interface) to manage your projects. We can also access this using the command line. Once you start the actual coding and working on projects, you must use GitHub to manage your source codes. It also provides team collaboration. 

Github

Focus on the following important points and learn: 

  1. How to create a repository 
  2. Pushing your code on GitHub 
  3. Creating branches 
  4. Git commands 
  5. Team collaboration 
  6. Version control 
  • Code Editors 

Visual Studio Code

VS CodeIt is a powerful source code editor used by most of the developers. It provides additional extensions and development tools which prove to be extremely helpful while writing the code.  

3. Package Managers 

Npm or Yarn 

These are tools used to manage the packages and libraries. You can choose the package manager of your choice. 

Learn command line commands to 

  1. create project 
  2. to install, remove - new modules, packages 
  3. to update the versions 

4. Advanced Concepts in Development 

ES6: It stands for ECMAScript 6, with ES6 being the 6th version of ECMAScript. ECMAScript was introduced to standardize JavaScript and was published in 2015. Due to new releases, there are some functionality changes in the previous concepts of React. 

  • State managements: It is a special technique which React uses to manipulate, update the values and data associated with the components. 
  • Passing values among components: Usually we pass the data from parent to child using props. There are alternative ways to pass the data using Redux and Context API. 

These are some advanced concepts which are particularly important. 

  • Component State/Context API 
  • Redux  
  • Async and Await 
  • API Requests 
  • Promises 
  • Observable 
  • Helpers 
  • Data persistence 

5. Better Styling using third party packages and plugins 

Learn how to 

  1. add Bootstrap in your applications 
  2. make your webpage responsive as per the various screen sizes 
  3. apply Material Designs in your components, 
  4. set default colors for your projects - Color palettes: primary, secondary, tertiary colors 

Bootstrap

6. Working with API 

  • Fetching data from APIs 
  • Get and Post requests 
  • Handling promises and observables 

How to Learn React in 2020

7. Routing and Navigation 

  • Loading other components in the same page 
  • Navigation among various components and views 

8. Testing 

Testing is an important part in a Software Development Life Cycle. Testing ensures the quality of the development work. We use the following resources to test the React components. 

  • Jest: Jest is a JavaScript test runner that lets you access the DOM through jsdom 
  • React Testing Library: it is a lightweight solution to test the React components.  

Find the official documentation here. 

Fundamentals 

  • Styling standards 

Create reusable and standard components and apply proper styling in components. 

  • Coding Standards 

  1. Write reusable and quality code – writing a superior quality code enhances the performance of the whole application. 

  1. Apply proper naming conventions while writing the code. 

Why should I learn React? 

  • Good community support 
  • Distinguished career ahead 
  • Regular updates and new versions 
  • Immense popularity 
  • Good income 
  • High demands in market 
  • Choice of new developers 

According to average salary of the React developer is

How to Learn React in 2020

How to Learn React in 2020

Challenges while learning 

As is the case when you are learning something new, you may find some challenges or difficulty in the learning process. You can take help from several communities, e.g., stackoverflowquora etc. to clear your doubts. Focus on learning the following topics: 

  • Hooks and Redux 
  • Promises 
  • Data binding 
  • Functional and class-based components 
  • Lifecycle of components 

Conclusion

Technologies are changing at warp speed, and new innovations in the existing structures and workflow are implemented on a regular basis. To adapt to these changesit's important to keep your skills and competencies updated as well. As some concepts and their implementations may be older,  always follow the official documentation, upskill yourself and stay relevant in the workforce  

KnowledgeHut

KnowledgeHut

Author

KnowledgeHut is an outcome-focused global ed-tech company. We help organizations and professionals unlock excellence through skills development. We offer training solutions under the people and process, data science, full-stack development, cybersecurity, future technologies and digital transformation verticals.
Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com

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I have an example database, so to backup only that I will use the below command. mongodump --db example --out C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup As, you can see in the below output only the example database was backed up. MongoDB Backup a specific collection Now, if we want to only backup a specific collection, we need to use the –collection option and give the collection name. Also, note that the database name is mandatory in this case, as mongodb needs to know about the database to search for the collection. I have a products collection within the example database, so to backup only that I will use the below command. mongodump --db example --out C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup –collection products As, you can see in the below output only the products collection from example database was backed up. MongoDB Backup from remote MongoDB instances We can get the backup from remote mongodb instances also. I have a lot of MongoDB databases for my personal projects on MongoDB atlas, which is the free to use Cloud database for MongoDB. To get a backup of remote databases, we have to use the connection string with –uri parameter. I used the below command. mongodump --uri "mongodb+srv://xxxx:xxxxxxxxxxx@cluster0.suvl2.mongodb.net/xxxxxDB?retryWrites=true&w=majority" --out C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup You can see in the below output the backup of the remote instance. MongoDB Backup procedures We should try to make the backup procedure as automated as possible. One of the best ways is to use a cron job, so that it can run every day. As, discussed earlier it is best to run the backup in the night when the database has the least load.  Setting up a cron job is easier on a Linux or a Mac because the Windows equivalent of it is not good. Alternatively, you can do install mongodb in WSL2 for Windows which supports Ubuntu.  Suppose, on a Linux host which has a mongoDB instance running, you want to run the backup at 04:04 am daily. For this in the terminal, open the cron editor by running the below command in the terminal. sudo crontab –e Now, in the cron editor, you need to add a command like below for our case. 4 4 * * * mongodump --out /var/backups/mongobackups/`date +"%m-%d-%y"`Restoring and migrating a MongoDB database When we restore the MongoDB database from a backup, we will be able to take the exact copy of the MongoDB information, including the indexes. We restore MongoDB by using the command mongorestore, which works only with the binary backup produced by mongodump. Now, we have taken the backup of example database earlier and it is in our Backup folder. We will use the below command to restore it. In the arguments we will specify the name of the database first with –db option. After that with –drop, we make sure that the example database is first dropped. And in the final argument, we specify the path of our backup. mongorestore --db example --drop C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup\example Now, if we check in terminal, we have our example database restored properly. Conclusion In this article, we have learned about MongoDB backup and restore. We have learned the different options for the backups, and why and when backups are required. Keep learning! 
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Back Up, Restore, and Migrate a MongoDB Database

Popular among both enterprises and startups, Mong... Read More

How to Work With Forms In JavaScript

Forms also referred as web forms are a very important part of front end web application development for sake of interaction with users. Most commonly, forms are used to collect the data from users or provide a provision for user to control the user interface. Forms are great potential assets if correctly used in building an interactive web application. We would be touch basing some of the essential aspects of them like HTML structure, styling form controls, events, data validation and submitting data to server.Understanding forms in detail needs expertise in other areas than just HTML like styling form controls (CSS), scripting to validate or create custom controls (JavaScript).We would be referring or using libraries like Jquery (for document traversal, manipulation etc) and parsley (form validation library) to build better forms.A typical form’s HTML is made of HTML elements called as form controls like single or multiline text fields, dropdowns, checkboxes, button etc mostly created using element with specific type being set on Type attribute. These form controls can be programmed to add some validations to support specific values based on constraints set on them. These controls can be enriched to support accessibility for enabling the interaction for less privileged users.Let’s create a simple html page to build a form.           Learning Forms       All forms have to start with element which is container having the form fields user would interact with. All attributes of element are optional but for programming forms to capture data we need at least ‘action’ and ‘method’ attributes.action – is basically the URL where the form fields data would be sent to.method – corresponds to the HTTP method to submit the form data. Possible HTTP method names which can be set as values are post and get. And another value dialog is set when form is imbedded inside a .Note: Both formaction and formmethod can be overridden by button, input with type submit elements which we will learn as we go forward.Refer to this link to know more about form attributes.Let’s add a form element to our body with action (“”) and method(“get”). This implies that form will send a GET request to the current URL. If it is post then it would be a POST request to the URL in action. Add few fields to form say name, email and a submit button using with type being specified as text, email and submit respectively.Note: The tag is an empty element, meaning that it doesn't need a closing tag. Value attribute can be populated to set the default value.          Enter your name:                    Enter your email:                       Save and open the html in chrome or your preferred browser. Clicking on ‘Click me!’ should send a http get call with empty name and email.Note: We can use instead of with type as submit. The difference is that button can contain HTML content allowing to create a complex button whereas input allows only plain text.Let’s understand the Sending of form data.If we observer all the form fields again, we have added an attribute called ‘name’. This property is important to inform that which data is associated with which form field i.e. name/value pairs. Try adding some data to our fields rendering in html (say myName and first.last@email.com) and click submit button. You should see the data being sent as query parameters in the browser URL.?name=myName&email=first.last@email.com.Change the Form method value to POST instead of GET and send the submitted data by clicking the ‘Click me!’ button. You should be seeing Form Data being sent but the browser URL will not get update.name: myName email: first.last@email.comAll this while, we have our action method being set as empty. Replace this with another URL on server side say ‘/captureFormData’. Now on clicking submit button the data should be received by the script at ‘/captureFormData’ with key/value items contained in the HTTP request object.Note that each server-side language like Node.js, C# etc have their own way of handling the submitted form data. And this blog would not cover those topics and it is beyond the scope.Let’s refine our basic form structure with help of other HTML elements like , , etc. Though we used few of them in basic example. Let’s go little deep on them.Note: Nesting of form inside another form is unacceptable as it might result in unpredictable behavior. is a convenient way of grouping for sake of styling and semantic purpose. This control can be associated with so that some assistive technologies can read this legend and associate it with the controls inside the . Let’s understand this will an example:         Interested programming language                             JavaScript                                     CSharp                                     Java               When reading the above form by any screen readers, it will read as “Interested programming language JavaScript” for the first radio, “Interested programming language CSharp” and “Interested programming language Java” for second and third radio.Imagine if you have a long form with multiple fields. It would help to improve the usability if we can categorize/section them with the help of . It would even help to improve the accessibility of forms.Talking about accessibility, with the associated correctly with the via its for attribute (which contains the element's id attribute), a screenreader will read out something like "name, edit text" for below one.Enter your name: Another advantage of having label associated with input of type text, radio etc is they are clickable too.  If you click on a label then the associated input control will get the focus. If the input control is of type checkbox or radio, clicking on label will select the check box and radio. This will be useful as clickable area of checkbox or radio is small and having label gives provision to select it easily.Note: We can always associate multiple labels to a single input control but it is not a good idea as it will impact the accessibility and assistive technologies. along with can be used to separate the functionality in a form and group the same purpose elements like radio buttons.Here is an example of the same.               Contact information                   Title                                                                             Mr                                                                                                 Mrs                                                                               Name:                                                           E-mail:                                                           Password:                                                 Additional information                               Social type:                                 LinkedIn             Twitter             Instagram                                                 Phone number:                                                           Submit                   Every time you like to create an HTML form you need to start using element and  nesting all the content controls inside it. Most of the assistive technologies and browser plugins can help to discover elements and implement special hooks to make them easier to use.We have already some of the form elements like , , , , , and . Other common input types are button, checkbox, file, hidden, image, password, radio, reset, submit, and text.Input types.Attributes of Input.Few attributes on element help in validating the data like required, max, maxlength, min, minlength, multiple, pattern, step etc based on their respective type.Also other attributes on of type submit/image like formaction, formmethod, formnovalidate, formenctype etc helps in overriding the form level methods.ValidationBefore submitting the data to the server, it is important to perform some client side validation to avoid unwanted round trips. Client-side validation is needed but it is not a replacement to the server side validation. Advantage of having client side validation is to capture the invalid data and fix it immediately.Some of the important and popular checks which are most commonly used on client areField requiredSpecific data formatEnter valid email addressPassword and more…Let’s build a form with the above validation checks.                         Do you have experience in programming ?*                     Yes           No                             How many years of experience you have ?                                     What's your programming language?*                           TypeScript           Java           CSharp           Ruby           Go           Swift                             What's your company e-mail address?                             Cover letter                             Submit       Say, if we enter an value which is more than 40 in experience field. We should see an inbuilt error as shown below:All these validations and notifications are coming out of the box. Thanks to inbuilt functionality in control. Let’s see how we can perform validation of forms using JavaScript and take control of look and feel of error message.Most browsers support constraint validation API by providing few validation properties on HTML elements like , , , etc.validationMessage: we can customize this message if the control value failed validation otherwise it will return an empty string. It is dependent on other constraint i.e. willValidate and isValid.willValidate: If element is validated then it will be true otherwise false.validity: is the validity state of the element and it is dependent on other properties likepatternMatch for specified pattern attribute,tooLong and tooShort are for string fields based on maxLength and minLengthrangeOverflow and rangeUnderflow for numeric fields based on max and min attributestypeMatch for fields which are based on email or url.valid if all the validation constraints are metvalueMissing if the field is set as required.Along with properties, we do also have methods to perform validation like checkValidity() which returns true or false and setCustomValidity(message) is to set the message if the element is considered invalid. Also if the element is invalid then checkValidity will raise an event called invalid Event.Let’s create a simple form and customize the validation message.       Please enter an email address:             Submit     Add a script tag and customize the message as shown below:     const email = document.getElementById("mail");     email.addEventListener("input", function (event) {       if (email.validity.typeMismatch) {         email.setCustomValidity("I am expecting an e-mail address!");       } else {         email.setCustomValidity("");       }     });   Here we are listening to the input event on email field and checking if the validity on the control is valid or not and based on that we are setting the custom message.Here are we relying on inbuilt validation method. Let’s disable the validation at form level by with the help of ‘novalidate’ and take control over validation. This would mean the browser will not perform auto check on validation before sending the data. But still we have access to constraint validation API to perform validation ourself.Refine the above form to add few addition validation like required and minLength etc.               Please enter an email address:                             Submit     Let’s update the script to handle the validation     const form  = document.getElementsByTagName('form')[0];     const email = document.getElementById('mail');     const emailError = document.querySelector('#mail + span.error');     email.addEventListener('input', function (event) {       // Each time the user types something, we check if the form fields are valid.       if (email.validity.valid) {         // In case there is an error message visible, if the field is valid, we remove the error message.         emailError.textContent = ''; // Reset the content of the message         emailError.className = 'error'; // Reset the visual state of the message       } else {         // If there is still an error, show the correct error         showError();       }     });     form.addEventListener('submit', function (event) {       // if the email field is valid, we let the form submit       if(!email.validity.valid) {         // If it isn't, we display an appropriate error message         showError();         // Then we prevent the form from being sent by cancelling the event         event.preventDefault();       }     });     function showError() {       if(email.validity.valueMissing) {         // If the field is empty display the following error message.         emailError.textContent = 'You need to enter an e-mail address.';       } else if(email.validity.typeMismatch) {         // If the field doesn't contain an email address display the following error message.         emailError.textContent = 'Invalid value is entered, expected an e-mail address.';       } else if(email.validity.tooShort) {         // If the data is too short display the following error message.         emailError.textContent = `Email should be at least ${ email.minLength } characters; you entered ${ email.value.length }.`;       }       // Set the styling appropriately       emailError.className = 'error active';     } Reload the HTML and try entering an invalid email address, the corresponding error message should be displayed.Note: In the current scope of this blog, we are not working on styling.Is it possible to validate forms without built in APIs ? Let’s see with the same example.We would consider the same form again but have lot of functionality in                           Please enter an email address:                                             Submit           const form  = document.getElementsByTagName('form')[0];     const email = document.getElementById('mail');     let error = email.nextElementSibling;     const emailRegExp = /^[a-zA-Z0-9.!#$%&'*+/=?^_`{|}~-]+@[a-zA-Z0-9-]+(?:\.[a-zA-Z0-9-]+)*$/;     function addEvent(element, event, callback) {       let previousEventCallBack = element["on"+event];       element["on"+event] = function (e) {         const output = callback(e);         // A callback that returns `false` stops the callback chain and interrupts the execution of the event callback.         if (output === false) return false;         if (typeof previousEventCallBack === 'function') {           output = previousEventCallBack(e);           if(output === false) return false;         }       }     };     // Now we can rebuild our validation constraint. Because we do not rely on CSS pseudo-class, we have to explicitly set the valid/invalid class on our email field     addEvent(window, "load", function () {       // Here, we test if the field is empty (remember, the field is not required)       // If it is not, we check if its content is a well-formed e-mail address.       const test = email.value.length === 0 || emailRegExp.test(email.value);       email.className = test ? "valid" : "invalid";     });     // This defines what happens when the user types in the fiel     addEvent(email, "input", function () {       const test = email.value.length === 0 || emailRegExp.test(email.value);       if (test) {         email.className = "valid";         error.textContent = "";         error.className = "error";       } else {         email.className = "invalid";       }     });     // This defines what happens when the user tries to submit the data     addEvent(form, "submit", function () {       const test = email.value.length === 0 || emailRegExp.test(email.value);       if (!test) {         email.className = "invalid";         error.textContent = "Expecting an e-mail";         error.className = "error active";         return false;       } else {         email.className = "valid";         error.textContent = "";         error.className = "error";       }     });   On refreshing the page, the output with invalid email address should be displayed as shown below.In real time applications, we can rely on existing libraries like Parsley along with JQuery which would ease our life by taking away lot of complexity.Overview of Parsley:Parsley is a front-end javascript validation library which helps to give proper feedback to user on submission of form. As mentioned earlier, it is not a replacement of server side validation. Parsley library helps us to define our own validation.Parsley uses a DOM API namely ‘data-parsley-’ prefix on the existing properties. For example if we want to add this on a property say ‘sample’ then we would add as [data-parsley-sample=’value’]. This will allow us to configure pretty much everything without any configuration or custom function.There is no specific installation process but adding the corresponding script tags will enable the validation. Parsley is relied on Jquery so it has to be included as well.             ...                 $('#form').parsley();     Assumption is that we have downloaded the Jquery and Parsley minified librarie and added it to our working directory. Otherwise we can refer to CDN location as shown below.   Adding attribute ‘data-parsley-validate’ to each form will allow us to validate. And “$(‘#form’).parsley()” will manually bind Parsley to your forms.Let’s understand further by configuring the attributes via JavaScript. For which, lets add two input fields inside the form element.                 Also let’s update the content to perform some pre-defined validation based on attributes.       var instance = $('#first').parsley();       console.log(instance.isValid()); // maxlength is 42, so field is valid       $('#first').attr('data-parsley-maxlength', 4);       console.log(instance.isValid()); // No longer valid, as maxlength is 4       // You can access and override options in javascript too:       instance.options.maxlength++;       console.log(instance.isValid()); // Back to being valid, as maxlength is 5       // Alternatively, the options can be specified as:       var otherInstance = $('#second').parsley({         maxlength: 10       });       console.log(otherInstance.options);     In the console.log, we should see thistrue false true {maxlength: 10}Options are inherited from the global level to form level and further to field. So if we set the options at global level then the same can be observed at field level.   Parsley.options.maxlength = 42; // maxlength of 42 is declared at global level var formInstance = $('form').parsley(); var field = $('input').parsley(); console.log(field.options.maxlength); // Shows that maxlength is 42 inherited from global Parsley.options.maxlength = 30; console.log(field.options.maxlength); // Shows that maxlength is automatically 30 formInstance.options.maxlength++; console.log(field.options.maxlength); // Shows that maxlength is automatically 31We can also add our own custom validations. Let understand this with an example.                     window.Parsley.addValidator('multipleOf', {         requirementType: 'integer',         validateNumber: function(value, requirement) {           return 0 === value % requirement;         },         messages: {           en: 'This value should be a multiple of %s',         }       });     Here we are adding a new attribute namely ‘data-parsley-multiple-of’ which takes only numeric values which are multiples of 3.In window.Parsley, we added a new validator with name ‘multiple-of’ with an object containing few important properties like ‘requirementType’, ‘validateNumber’ and ‘messages’ to be shown. This properties helps the library to check if the input value is valid or not.Similar to validateNumber, other properties are also there for different types like validateString, validateDate and validateMultiple.Also for requirementType, we have different options like string, number, date, regexp, boolean etc.Messages by default has English format, to support multiple locales we need to add the specific localization and also add specific locale.Events: Parsley triggers events that allows ParsleyUI to work and for performance reasons they don’t rely on JQuery events but the usage is similar to JQuery i.e. parsley events will also bubble up like JQuery events. For example, if a field is validated then the event ‘field:validate’ will be triggred on the field instance then on to form instance and finally to the window.Parsley.$('#some-input').parsley().on('field:success', function() {         // In here, `this` is the parlsey instance of #some-input       });       window.Parsley.on('field:error', function() {         // This global callback will be called for any field that fails validation.         console.log('Validation failed for: ', this.$element);       });Many times, we need some validation based on the response from server. Parsley provides an attributes i.e. data-parsley-remote and data-parsley-remote-validator to perform the same.Let’s consider this HTMLLet’s add the async validator on the window.Parsley object.window.Parsley.addAsyncValidator('customValidator', function (xhr) {           console.log(this.$element); // jQuery Object[ input[name="q"] ]           return 404 === xhr.status;         }, 'customURL');Parsley is a very useful and powerful JavaScript form frontend validation library.Note: For developers building react based web applications, they can rely on FORMIK which is most popular library for building forms in React and React Native.ConclusionForms are important in HTML and it was needed and still needed now. is an html tag that allow us to perform HTTP methods like GET/POST operation without writing any code in JavaScript. Form defines an boundary to identify all set of the form field elements to be submitted to the server. For example, if we perform an enter key or clicking on submit button , the agent triggers form submission data based on each form field value to the server based on the action URL on the form.Before HTML5, all the elements are expected to be part of the to send the data to server. In HTML5, they maintained the backward compatibility and also enhanced the capabilities who may want to use AJAX and don’t want to rely on default behaviours i.e. they have enabled designers who expect more flexibility in having their form elements outside the form and still maintain the connections with the form. 
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How to Work With Forms In JavaScript

Forms also referred as web forms are a very import... Read More

Introduction to Web APIs in JavaScript

Before we talk about APIs in JavaScript and how to use them, we need to know what exactly we mean by APIs. API stands for Application Programming Interface and is a concept that is not limited or specific to JavaScript, but is used in almost all web application languages. Being a web developer, it is expected that you know about API, so let’s try to understand the concept first. As a concept, API has been there since more than 50 years, but in recent years it has become very popular and has outlined a different method for how we create our applications. Now imagine you are creating a web application where users can sign up and talk about their recent travels, write stories, post pictures and share them. As an add-on they should be able to share the same across multiple platforms like Facebook, Instagram etc. How do we do that? We don’t have access to the Instagram application or their data. We don’t know how they are managing their data and whether data from our application will fit into their databases.  Let’s try to imagine how Instagram would allow add-on without APIs. Perhaps we might drop an email to Instagram asking them to allow us access to their databases where we can write content. They may have received millions of other such requests from people who also need to use Instagram add-ons. Instagram will go through our requests and the million others and probably would use a lucky draw to decide who gets access to their databases. This is obviously not a reasonable solution and without any reasonable solution all applications in the world will just become isolated; which means they can’t communicate and can’t support each other’s features. Luckily our imagination is just that!Fortunately, we are living in a world with APIs around us which allow us to easily communicate with other apps. I can create an application where I can use Google’s search, Facebook’s feed, Instagram’s post, twitter’s tweets all in one app. This is all possible using API. As the name suggests, it allows us to open an interface which can then be used by other apps to communicate using the interface. How does an API work?The purpose of API is to communicate between apps with each other as intermediary, where both apps might have been built with different tools and technologies. It can be achieved by using api standards like REST, SOAP which outline protocols or sets of rules which the client (who needs to call) and server (who serves client’s requests) need to follow. These standards are key to communication. These standards outline what a request should look like and the format in which client should expect response from server. Every api exposes its endpoints (also called entrypoints), which allows its client to use it to access features of apis. For example, in JavaScript, to work with DOM, it exposes Document as an entrypoint in order to work with multiple methods. It allows its client to use it in order to manipulate DOM. In JavaScript however we use containers, which are nothing but HTML controls which can call APIs and response can be rendered within that control. JavaScript: An Introduction JavaScript is one of the most widely used programming languages, even though it is mainly used on browsers to render HTML and CSS. It can also run on our servers to handle client requests, connect with databases and do almost everything any other programming language does on the server. This makes it a significant tool that needs to be learned. Here, we are going to discuss about APIs which are provided by JavaScript to work with almost every aspect of a web application. APIs in JavaScript JavaScript, being a very widely used programming language has a very large set of APIs available, which make a JavaScript developer’s life a lot easier. JavaScript is also a multi-purpose language which means it can not only work on browsers, but also on servers or phones. To support different platforms, it has a different set of APIs to work with. It also provides a rich set of controls and other features like storage on client which are all easily availed by JavaScript.  Browser APIs in JavaScript Browsers use JavaScript to display web pages, handle user interactions, send requests to servers and to receive responses. To make all this possible, JavaScript provides browser APIs which can be used to perform browser related functions:  Working with DOM  DOM stands for Document Object Model, which is a structure that holds all HTML controls on a web page. It not only holds but also allows us to add remove controls from it. You might have worked with document API which is used to get, push or even remove elements from DOM, all of this is coming from JavaScript DOM API. Example: document.getElementById(“header”).text(“This is a header”); Request data from server JavaScript is widely used to optimize web pages by updating only a part of a webpage instead of loading the entire page. for example, when you like a post on Facebook, it doesn’t load the entire page again, it only updates that particular post. Similarly, when we tweet on Twitter it doesn’t reload the entire page to show new tweets. This is how JavaScript makes partial calls to the server using popular fetch, AJAX apis. Example: const response= await fetch(url); // when response is success which is status 200 if (response.ok) {     // receive response from server.   let json = await response.json(); } else {   // if there are errors returned by server, show the error   alert("Error occured" + response.status); }Store data at client Even though we have our databases working smoothly on servers processing terabytes of data every day, you might still want to store a chunk of data on the client’s browsers to optimize the application performances. How do we do that? Again JavaScript will show us the way, by providing APIs like localStorage, sessionStorage which we can use to store data on client’s browser and remove it whenever we want. The difference between localStorage and sessionStorgae is that data which we store in localStorage persists even after closing the browser or tab,  whereas data stored in sessionStorage gets cleared as soon as the tab or browser is closed. Now both of these have its own advantages depending on your requirement.sessionStorage.setItem('key', value); sessionStorage.getItem('key')   localStorage.setItem('key', value); sessionStorage.getItem('key';)Work with Graphics There are lot of popular applications where you might have seen  2D or 3D graphics created using user’s interaction allowing users to create such drawings, and I am not talking about just CSS (Cascaded Style Sheets). Yes, CSS has its role to play, but to allow users to create 2D/3D drawings on the web we need more than just CSS. JavaScript provides canvas api which can be used to work with pixels on web page to draw 2D/ 3D images which will be within html tag.Third Party APIs.  Integration with other applications, the structures of which we don’t have much information about, can be difficult. But JavaScript allows us to integrate with many popular third-party apps like Twitter, YouTube, Facebook. For example, you have your company’s website where you also want to display recent tweets that your company’s Twitter account has tweeted. How do we do that? JavaScript’s Twitter API is the answer. This is not only for Twitter, but a lot of other popular apps can be integrated into your own web page using JavaScript’s third party APIs. Web Audio API  Audio API in JavaScript provides a smooth implementation of audio controls over a webpage. This includes multiple play controls on audio, and audio effects on the web. Web Audio API has multiple interfaces which include operations related to visualization effects, audio destinations, merging audio channels and audio processing. Example      Play   Geolocation APIThere are many web apps which work best with information of user’s locations, for example, if you are looking for restaurants nearby, you will get better results if Google knows your location. It is obviously up to the user’s consent if they want to share their location or not due to privacy concerns, but if they do want to share, geolocation API provides location of users to web applications. Example: var address = document.getElementById("address"); function accessUserLocation() {   if (navigator.geolocation) { navigator.geolocation.getCurrentPosition(displayLocation); } } function displayLocation(location) { address.innerHTML = "Latitude: " + location.coords.latitude +   "Longitude: " + location.coords.longitude;   }History API  History API is another useful although rarely used API, used if you want to allow user to traverse back and forth on a web application. History API runs with window objects using three different methods available-- go, back and forward. Example: // Visit page visited previously  window.history.back();  // Traverse to forward on web page.  window.history.forward();  // Move forward by 1 page  window.history.go(1); Web Workers API  Workers can be created using constructors in JavaScript, which can run a JavaScript file under worker thread context, which is different from the context of windows in JavaScript. There are a few exceptions on what kind of code we can run under worker thread, for example we can’t manipulate DOM using worker thread. With this a question arises-- if worker thread is different form main window thread, then how do they communicate? Because even though it is running in a different thread, the worker can still execute many window methods. To make this possible, the worker and main thread communicate using postMessage() method; to send data whenever onmessage event is called and handled. Example: const worker = new Worker('input.js'); Here input file which is a JavaScript file will contain the code which you need the worker thread to execute. Most Popular JavaScript APIs Browser APIs – We have discussed them in detail and since JavaScript leads how web applications are rendered on browser, the popularity of browser APIs is obvious. Canvas APIs – This is another favorite API of many developers who work in the graphics domain and need interactive applications for their client to easily work with drawings and graphics on web pages. SocialMedia APIs – This is very common nowadays. Any web application that targets an audience, needs social media integrations in their app, such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram APIs, where they can showcase recent activities on their web page. Storage APIs – Every site I browse now a days pops up a panel asking me to accept cookies settings. Why? Because it helps the applications work well with user’s interaction and responses to the app, and the storage is not limited to cookies. sessionStorage and localStorage are widely used in JavaScript applications to store user’s info on client’s browsers. We just can’t imagine a life without storage APIs in JavaScript! JavaScript tools and relationship between themJavaScript Libraries There are JavaScript libraries like jQuery and React which implement JavaScript with their own new syntax. For example, the way we access our DOM using vanilla JavaScript and the way jQuery does it is different, but in the end, both use the same API which we have discussed above. Another example is when using React, where it extends JavaScript with JSX to embed JavaScript with HTML in React components.JavaScript FrameworksJavaScript Frameworks like Angular and Vue make most of the JavaScript APIs as they are built on top of JavaScript. The difference between the frameworks is in the structure, data flow and different patterns which they use to make it easier to work with JavaScript and implement its APIs.  For example, Angular uses Dependency Injection to inject services into the component’s constructors, making it a sophisticated form of implementing inversion control which would be not this smooth with vanilla JavaScript. Frameworks like Angular try to prevent users from manipulating DOM directly as it is an expensive operation. However, it doesn’t mean it doesn’t update DOM at all. In the end, Angular uses DOM manipulation internally in quite an effective way, using the same APIs we have discussed above.Conclusion An API can be compared to a phone with unlimited talk time that is given to an application, allowing it to communicate with all other applications in the world. Why do we need this? Because one application doesn’t need to and can’t do everything. They need each other’s help. APIs can be for external as well internal use. External APIs allows an app to communicate with other apps, and internal or built-in APIs allow developers to work effectively with the tools. JavaScript being the most popular language in the world is aware of this and hence presents plenty of interfaces for us as developers to use in our applications. Be it working with storage, creating controls, integrating with Twitter, presenting media, or drawing graphics, JavaScript will not let you down.  
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Introduction to Web APIs in JavaScript

Before we talk about APIs in JavaScript and how to... Read More